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Teaching Petrology in the 21st Century
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Selected References for Teaching Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry

This collection of references and on-line resources has been developed as a supplement to the special volume on Teaching Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry ELEMENTS magazine.

Resources on Teaching and Learning from the Science Education Resource Center (SERC)

Collections of teaching activities and web-based supporting resources
Finding analytical instruments to support teaching and learning
Collections of teaching strategies with examples, instructions, and references
Observing and assessing student learning
Teaching geoscience with visualizations
Using data in the classroom
Teaching quantitative skills in the geosciences
An Earth system approach
Integrating research and education
Course design

General References on Science Education Reform

Resources on K-12 Education

Resources on Assessment

  • Angelo, T. A., and Cross, K. P. (1993) Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers: Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.
  • Angelo, R.A. (1991) Ten Easy Pieces: Assessing Higher Learning in Four Dimensions. In Classroom Research: Early Lessons From Success, New Directions for Teaching and Learning: Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco, CA, no. 41, p. 17-31.
  • Arter, J., and McTighe, J. (2001) Scoring Rubrics in the Classroom: Using Performance Criteria for Assessing and Improving Student Performance: Corwin Press, Thousand Oaks, CA.
  • Brunkhorst, B. (1996) Assessing student learning in undergraduate geology courses by correlating assessment with what we want to teach: Journal of Geoscience Education, 44, 373-378.
  • Huba, M.E., and Freed, J.E. (2000) Learner-Centered Assessment on College Campuses: Shifting the Focus from Teaching to Learning: Allyn and Bacon, Needham Heights, MA, 286 p.
  • National Research Council (2001) Knowing What Students Know: The Science and Design of Educational Assessment: National Academy Press, Washington D.C., 366 p.
  • National Research Council (2003) Evaluating and Improving Undergraduate Teaching in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics: National Academy Press, Washington D.C., 215 p.
  • Nuhfer, E. (1996) The place of formative evaluations in assessment and ways to reap their benefits: Journal of Geoscience Education, 44, 385-394.
  • Tewksbury, B. (1996) Teaching without exams; the challenges and benefits: Journal of Geoscience Education, 44, 366-372.

Resources on How Students Learn, Think and Develop Intellectually

  • Bain, K. What the Best College Teachers Do: Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 207 p.
  • Barr, R.B., and Tagg, J. (1995) From Teaching to Learning: A New Paradigm for Undergraduate Education: Change, 27, 13-25.
  • Baxter Magolda, M.B. (1992) Knowing and Reasoning in College: Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco, CA.
  • Belenky, M.F., Clinchy, B.M., Goldberger, N.R., and Tarule, J.M. (1986) Women's Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self, Voice, and Mind: Basic Books, New York (reprinted in 1997).
  • Bok, D. (2006) Our Underachieving Colleges: A Candid Look at How Much Students Learn and Why They Should be Learning More: Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 413 p.
  • Clark, D. (2004) Learning Styles: Or, how we go from the unknown to the known.
  • Donald, J.G. (2002) Learning to Think: Disciplinary Perspectives: Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco, CA, 330 p.
  • Felder, Richard (1993) Reaching the second tier: learning and teaching styles in college science education: Journal of College Science Teaching, 23, 286-290.
  • Felder, R.M., and Brent, R. (2004) The Intellectual Development of Science and Engineering Students. 1. Models and Challenges: Journal of Engineering Education, 93, 4, 269-277.
  • Felder, R.M., and Silverman, L.K. (1988) Learning and Teaching Styles in Engineering Education: Journal of Engineering Education, 78, 7, 674-681.
  • Felder, R., and Solomon, B.A. (2004) Learning Styles and Strategies.
  • Fink, L.D. (2003) Creating Significant Learning Experiences: An Integrated Approach to Designing College Courses. Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco, CA, 295 p.
  • Gardner, H. (1993) Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences: Basic Books, NY, NY.
  • King, P.M. and Kitchener, K.S. (1994) Developing Reflective Judgment: Understanding and Promoting Intellectual Growth and Critical Thinking in Adolescents and Adults: Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco, CA.
  • Leamnson, R. (1999) [learn http://serc.carleton.edu/resources/1333.html 'Thinking About Teaching and Learning: Developing Habits of Learning with First Year College and University Students']: Stylus Press, Sterling, VA, 169 p.
  • McKeachie, W., Hofer, B., Van Note Chism, N., Zhu, E., Kaplan, M., Coppola, B., Northedge, A., Weinstein, C.E., Halonen, J., Svinicki, M.D. (2002) Teaching Tips: Strategies, Research, and Theory for College and University Teachers (eleventh edition): Houghton Mifflin Co., 371 p.
  • National Research Council (1999) How People Learn: Bridging Research and Practice: National Academy Press, Washington D.C., 346 p.
  • National Research Council (2000) How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience and School: National Academy Press, Washington D.C., 374 p.
  • Pavelich, M.N. (1996) Helping students develop higher-level thinking: Use of the Perry Model: Journal of Engineering Education, 85, 4, 287-292.
  • Perry, W.G., Jr. (1970) Forms of intellectual and ethical development in the college years: A scheme: Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco, CA (updated and republished in 1999; Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York), 256 p.
  • Schroeder, C.C. (2004) New Students—New Learning Styles. Available at: http//www.virtualschool.edu/mon/Academia/KierseyLearningStyles.html.
  • Wise, J., Lee, S.H., Litzinger, T.A., Marra, R.M., and Palmer, B. (2004) Encouraging intellectual growth: Senior college student profiles. Journal of Adult Development, 11, 111-122.
  • Zull, J.E. (2002) The Art of Changing the Brain: Enriching the Practice of Teaching by Exploring the Biology of Learning: Stylus Publishing, Sterling, VA, 262 p.

Resources on Problem-based and Active Learning

  • Duch, B.J., Groh, S.E., and Allen, D.E. (editors) (2001) The Power Of Problem-Based Learning: Stylus Publishing, Sterling, VA, 274 p.
  • Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., and Smith, K. (1991) Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom: Interaction Book Company, Edina, MN.
  • Kolb, D.A. (1984) Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development: Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
  • McManus, D.A. (2005) Leaving the Lectern: Cooperative Learning and the Critical First Days of Students Working in Groups: Anker Publishing Company, Inc., Bolton, MA.
  • Prince, M. (2004) Does Active Learning Work? A Review of the Research: Journal of Engineering Education, 93, 223-231.
  • Savin-Baden M., and Major C.H. (2004) Foundations of Problem-Based Learning. Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press: Berkshire, England, 197 p.
  • Walvoord, B.E., Breihan, J.R. (1997) Helping Faculty Design Assignment-Centered Courses. In DeZure, D., (editor), To Improve the Academy, New Forums Press, Stillwater, OK, 16, 349-372.

Resources on Critical Thinking

  • Paul, R., and Elder, L. (2004) The elements of critical thinking: Helping students assess their thinking: Defining Critical Thinking: National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking.
  • Paul, R., Elder, L., and Bartell, T. (1997) California teacher reparation for instruction in critical thinking: Research findings and policy recommendations: Sonoma, CA, Foundation for Critical Thinking.
  • Scriven M., and Paul (2004) Defining Critical Thinking: National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking.

Resources on Teaching Crystallography

  • Baer, C. D. (1990) The growth of large single crystals: Journal of Chemical Education, 67, 410-412.
  • Bascom, Florence (1920) The use of the two-circle contact goniometer in teaching crystallography: American Mineralogist, 5, 3, 45-50.
  • Birk,1. P., and Coffinan, P. (1992) Finding the face centered cube in the cubic closest packed structure: Journal of Chemical Education, 69, 953-954.
  • Buseck, Peter R. (1970) Tinker toys, crystallography, and the introductory mineralogy course: Journal of Geological Education, 18, 26-30.
  • Cody, R.D. (1972) Matrix representation of symmetry Operators in elementary crystallography: Journal of Geological Education, 20, 125-130.
  • Donnay, G., and Donnay, 1. D. H. (1978) How much crystallography should we teach geologists?: American Mineralogist, 63, 840-846.
  • Donnay, G., and Donnay, 1. D. H. (1984) The M. A. C. crystallographic laboratory manual: Mineralogical Association of Canada, Montreal.
  • Dutch, S. I. (1986) Modelling symmetry classes 233 and 432: Journal of Geological Education, 34, 103-105.
  • Dutch, S.I. (1995) Making sense of rotoinversion symmetry: Journal of Geoscience Education, 43, 255-257.
  • Dutch, S.I. (1998) Unit-cell models of isometric crystals: Journal of Geoscience Education, 46, 479-483.
  • Erickson, R.C. (1998) Producing an accurate crystal drawing in any orientation from a stereogram: Journal of Geoscience Education, 46, 238-244.
  • Fisher, Daniel Jerome (1924) The teaching of crystallography: Journal of Geology, 32, 529-542.
  • Fisher, Daniel Jerome (1949) Changes in the objectives in the teaching of mineralogical crystallography: American Mineralogist, 34, 289-290.
  • Foote, J. D., and Blanck, H. F. (1991) A demonstration of hexagonal close-packed and cubic close-packed crystal structures: Journal of Chemical Education, 68, 777-778.
  • Kraus, Edward Henry (1906) The teaching of crystallography: Science, 855-856.
  • Makovicky, E., and Makovicky, M. (1977) Arabic geometrical patterns; a treasury for crystallographic teaching: Neues Jahrbuch fuer Mineralogie, Monatshefte, 2, 58-68.
  • Mies, J.W. (1995) Simple methods for rapid determination of lattice-preferred orientation in two dimensions: Journal of Geoscience Education, 43, 6-10.
  • Peacock, Martin Alfred (1949) The teaching of morphological crystallography: American Mineralogist, 34, 291-292.
  • Velbel, M.A (2000) Classroom index-card simulations of crystal growth: Journal of Geoscience Education, 48, 261-266.

Resources on Teaching Mineralogy

Mineralogy Database Resources

  • Mineral Web - This site by Alistair R. Lennie provides a 3-D display of mineral structures.
  • mindat.org - This site contains worldwide data on minerals, mineral collecting, mineral localities and other mineralogical information.
  • MSA Crystal Structure Database—This Mineralogical Society of America site includes every structure published in the American Mineralogist, The Canadian Mineralogist, the European Journal of Mineralogy and is beginning to include structures from Physics and Chemistry of Minerals.
  • Example Exercises and Activities using MSA Crystal Structure Database - This Science Education Resource Center (SERC) site by Kent Ratajeski provides exercises and activities to teach about mineralogy with crystal structure databases and visualization software.

Resources on Teaching Optical Mineralogy

Resources on Teaching X-ray Diffraction

  • Aydal, D., Kilinc, A.I., and Phillips, M. (1997) Using powder X-ray diffraction in the undergraduate curriculum to determine total iron in rocks and minerals: Journal of Geological Education, 45, 243-245.
  • Brady, J.B., and Boardman, S.J. (1995) Introducing mineralogy students to x-ray diffraction through optical diffraction experiments by using lasers: Journal of Geological Education, 43, 471-476.
  • Brady, J.B., Newton, R.M., and Boardman, S.J. (1995) New uses for powder x-ray diffraction experiments in the undergraduate curriculum: Journal of Geological Education, 43, 466-470.
  • Chipman, D.W. (1980) An exercise in x-ray diffraction using the polymorphic transition of nickel chromite: Journal of Geological Education, 28, 144-147.
  • Enemark, J. H. (1988) Introducing chemists to X-ray structure determination: in, Symposium on Teaching Crystallography, M. Rossi and H. Berman (eds)., Journal of Chemical Education, 65, 491-493.
  • Garlick, G.D. (1997) X-ray diffraction simulation using laser pointers and printers: Journal of Geological Education, 45, 317-321.
  • Hluchy, M.M. (1999) The value of teaching x-ray techniques and clay mineralogy to undergraduates: Journal of Geological Education, 47, 236-240.
  • Horton, R.A.Jr. (1994) X-ray diffraction as an instructional tool at all levels of the geology curriculum: Journal of Geological Education, 42, 453-455.
  • Johnson, N.E. (2001) X-ray diffraction simulation using laser pointers and printers: Journal of Geological Education, 49, 346-350.
  • Moore, D.M. (1987) X-ray diffraction and the development of clay mineralogy: Journal of Geological Education, 35, 28-32.
  • Rosenberg, G. D., and Barth, A. P. (1994) Acquisition of an automated X-ray diffractometer for advanced undergraduate instruction in the Earth sciences: Journal of Geological Education, 42, 443-446.

Resources on Teaching Petrology

Resources on Teaching Geochemistry

  • Andersen, C.B. (2002) Understanding carbonate equilibria by measuring alkalinity in experimental and natural systems: Journal of Geoscience Education, 50, 389-403.
  • Andersen, C.B. (2001) The problem of sample contamination in fluvial geochemistry research experience for undergraduates: Journal of Geoscience Education, 49, 351-357.
  • Aydal, D., Kilinc, A.I., and Phillips, M. (1997) Using powder X-ray diffraction in the undergraduate curriculum to determine total iron in rocks and minerals: Journal of Geoscience Education, 45, 243-245.
  • Barker, D.S. (1993) Crustal abundances of elements and species diversity of minerals: Journal of Geoscience Education, 41, 35-37.
  • Biddle, D.L. (1995) Ion activity and speciation in environmental geochemistry: Journal of Geoscience Education, 43, 507-510.
  • Brady, J.B (1992) Does ice dissolve or does halite melt?: Journal of Geoscience Education, 40, 116-118.
  • Carlson, C.A. (1999) Field research as a pedagogical tool for learning hydrogeochemistry and scientific-writing skills: Journal of Geoscience Education, 47, 150-157.
  • Cercone, K.R. (1988) A classroom simulation of water-rock interaction for upper-level geochemistry courses: Journal of Geoscience Education, 36, 140-142.
  • Davis, S.N. (1988) Natural radionuclides in ground water: Journal of Geoscience Education, 36, 24-29.
  • DeLa'O, J.D. (1995) CAD solid modeling as an interactive tool for applications involving multicomponent phase diagrams: Journal of Geoscience Education, 43, 236-243.
  • Dunnivant, F.M., Danowski, D., Newman, M., Spano, T., and Frye, F. (2002) Teaching chemical speciation to environmental chemists and geochemists using Enviroland: Journal of Geoscience Education, 50, 549-552.
  • Dunnivant, F.M., Dunnivant, M.E., Newman, M.E., Brzenk, R., Moore, A., and Alfano, M.J. (1999) A comprehensive stream study designed for an undergraduate non-majors course in earth science: Journal of Geoscience Education, 47, 158-165.
  • Dutch, S.I. (1992) Geochemical calculations using spreadsheets: Journal of Geoscience Education, 40, 127-132.
  • Foos, A.M. (1997) Integration of a class research project into a traditional geochemistry lab course: Journal of Geoscience Education, 45, 322-325.
  • Kirschner, D., Encarnacion, J., and Agosta, F. (2000) Incorporating stable-isotope geochemistry in undergraduate laboratory courses: Journal of Geoscience Education, 48, 209-215.
  • Knapp, E.P., Desjardins, S.G. and Pleva, M.A. (2003) An interdisciplinary approach to teaching introductory chemistry to geology students: Journal of Geoscience Education, 51, 481-483.
  • Knapp, E.P., Harbor, D.J., and Ginwalla, Z.F. (2003) Testing the waters: Can you involve community action in your college curriculum?: Journal of Geoscience Education, 51, 294-298.
  • Kretz, R. (1985) Calculation and illustration of uncertainty in geochemical analyses: Journal of Geoscience Education, 33, 40-44.
  • Levy, J. and Mayer, L. (1999) Systems modeling of nonequilibrium chemical reactions using STELLA: Journal of Geoscience Education, 47, 413-419.
  • Meijer, E.L. (1990) Stability fields of solid solutions in phase diagrams (2): Journal of Geoscience Education, 38, 286-289.
  • Meijer, E.L. (1988) Stability fields of solid solutions in phase diagrams: Journal of Geoscience Education, 36, 286-289.
  • Meijer, E.L. (1988) A versatile GWBASIC program for calculations on mineral equilibria: Journal of Geoscience Education, 36, 282-286.
  • Merino, E. (1996) Melt and aqueous series of silicate crystallization displayed by chemical-potential diagrams: Journal of Geoscience Education, 44, 179-182.
  • Microbeam Analysis Society - This site contains GSA presentations from the 'Teaching Instrumentation to Geoscience Students: Course design, objectives and presentations' session.
  • Mursky, G. (1987) Flow chart for mineral separation from granitic rocks: Journal of Geoscience Education, 35, 256-259.
  • Railsback, L.B. (1993) A geochemical view of weathering and the origin of sedimentary rocks and natural waters: Journal of Geoscience Education, 41, 404-411.
  • Railsback, L.B. (1993) A thermodynamic perspective on the stability of carbonate minerals and its implications for carbonate petrology: Journal of Geoscience Education, 41, 12-14.
  • Roberts, S. (2000) Using a spreadsheet to introduce aqueous-speciation calculations to geochemistry students: Journal of Geoscience Education, 48, 203-208.
  • Rodbell, D.T. and Gremmillion, P.T. (2005) A winter field-based course on limnology and paleolimnology: Journal of Geoscience Education, 53, 494-500.
  • Rosenberg, G.D. and Barth, A.P. (1994) Acquisition of an automated X-ray diffractometer for advanced undergraduate instruction in the earth sciences: Journal of Geoscience Education, 42, 444-447.
  • Salvage, K., Graney, J., and Barker, J. (2004) Watershed-based integration of hydrology, geochemistry, and geophysics in an environmental curriculum: Journal of Geoscience Education, 52, 141-148.
  • Schoonen, M.A.A., and Oswald, E.J. (1993) A graphic technique for illustrating thermodynamic constraints on the mass of precipitate from supersaturated solutions: Journal of Geoscience Education, 41, 247-253.
  • Spear, F.S. (1996) The relationship between pH and PCO2 as the basis for simple classroom demonstration of chemical equilibrium in the carbonate system: Journal of Geoscience Education, 44, 565-568.
  • Velbel, M.A. (2004) Laboratory and homework exercises in the geochemical kinetics of mineral-water reaction: Rate law, Arrhenius activation energy, and the rate-determining step in the dissolution of halite: Journal of Geoscience Education, 52, 52-59.
  • Warren, H.N., and Girty, G.H. (1999) A MATLAB 5 program for calculating the statistics of mass change: Journal of Geoscience Education, 47, 313-320.
  • Yuretich, R.F. (2004) The effects of course redesign on an upper-level geochemistry course: Journal of Geoscience Education, 52, 277-283.

Geochemistry Database Resources

  • Geochemical Earth Reference Model (GERM) - This database contains summary data on the geochemistry of all reservoirs in the Earth. All search results are customizable, allowing the user to sort and convert units and to download the data in a format of your choice with one click.
  • EarthChem - The EarthChem Portal is a data management system through which users can search across databases, providing a "one-stop shop" for geochemistry data of the solid earth. The portal provides multiple resources including educational and visualization tools for researchers, educators, and students at all levels of expertise.
  • Example Exercises and Activities using EarthChem - This Science Education Resource Center (SERC) site by Kent Ratajeski provides teaching exercises and activities using EarthChem.

Contribute a Teaching Activity or Resource

Please use one of the following links to access a form to contribute additional resources (activity, course syllabus or outline, URL, or article). Please select the primary discipline related to your contribution: