Initial Publication Date: June 30, 2006

Terms of Use

This website was developed by the Science Education Resource Center (SERC) at Carleton College and its partners with funding from the National Science Foundation and other sponsors. Any views expressed in this website do not necessarily reflect the views of SERC, Carleton College or any of its sponsors or affiliates.

Citing this Site

A number of useful citation formats for web resources can be found on the "Frequently Asked Reference Questions" page of the Internet Public Library website. In general you should include author, publication date, page title, title of the site, date you viewed the site, and the url. In APA format a citation of one of our resources might look like this:

Macdonald, H. (2004) Geologic Puzzles: Morrison Formation, Starting Point. Retrieved Sept 9, 2004, from

Many pages within our sites list author information (e.g. for a particular example or activity) immediately below the page title. In areas of the site where a single author created a group of pages you may need to visit the first page of the set to find the authorship information. If no author information is provided you can assume the author is the 'Science Education Resource Center'. Or feel free to contact us for more detailed authorship information.

Our pages list the last modification date (effectively the publication date of the current page content) in the page footer. The page title can be found across the top of your web browser and the site title usually appears in the banner across the top of the page.


We encourage the reuse and dissemination of the material on this site for noncommercial purposes (like education) as long as attribution is retained. To this end the material on this site, unless otherwise noted, is offered under a Creative Commons license Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0. Attribution should include at a minimum a link to the original material on the SERC site and credit to the original author (see above for determining that information). In most cases including all the information in the citation format above is preferred.

If you are interested in using materials found on SERC sites beyond the scope of this license (e.g within materials you will offer for sale). Please contact

Unless other arrangements are in place authors of original works submitted to SERC retain their copyright. But in volunteering the works they agree to offer it under this license allowing for reuse and redistribution with attribution. Authors are responsible for obtaining copyright permission for all materials that they distribute within their work.  If you are an author contributing materials to a SERC-hosted project you'll want to be familiar with our Copyright Pointers for Contributors.

If you believe that specific material on SERC sites has been posted in violation of copyright Carleton College has registered an agent for notification of claims of copyright infringement pursuant to Section 512(c) of the Copyright Act. Claims of copyright infringement.