Hydrology of the Pine Ridge Reservation
The Missouri River divides South Dakota both geologically and economically. The more populated eastern side is characterized by agriculture as it receives higher levels of precipitation. The more arid western side is economically designated by mining and tourism.
The hydrology of the Black Hills is largely dictated by both the geology and topography. The majority of the streams have springs located in Paleozoic formations. The base flow of most Black Hills streams originate in the higher elevations, where increased precipitation and lower temperatures result in excess water being available for spring flow and stream flow. However, much of this water is absorbed as the streams cross over limestone and sandstone exposures which are porous and permeable and thus allow stream water to enter into bedrock aquifers (Black Hills Hydrology Study (more info) ). For long-term trends in precipitation from 1931-1998 in the Black Hills click here (more info) .
The Badlands occupy the White River which was formed due to tectonic and climatic changes. The Badlands Wall serves to divide the drainage of rivers. The White River drains to the south, and the Cheyenne River drains north (Geology Field Camp Guide ( This site may be offline. ) ).