Geology and Physiography of Devil's Tower
Devil's Tower, deemed the first national monument by Theodore Roosevelt in 1906, is an igneous intrusion which rises 1,267 feet above the surrounding area. The redness of the rocks is due to the oxidization of minerals (Devil's Tower National Monument (more info) ). The region around the tower is composed of the Spearfish, Gypsum Spring and Sundance formations (Field Notes (more info) ).
Although Devil's Tower has long been a prominent landmark in northeastern Wyoming, the origin of the mammoth rock obelisk remains somewhat obscure. Geologists agree that Devil's Tower formed from molten rock forced upwards from deep within the earth. Debate continues, however, as to whether the rock cooled underground or whether Devil's Tower magma reached the surface. Current research supports the conclusion that Devil's Tower was not a volcano, but was injected between sedimentary rock layers and cooled underground. The characteristic furrowed columns are the result of contraction which occurred during the cooling of the magma. Geologic estimates have placed the age of Devil's Tower at greater than 50 million years, although it is likely that erosion uncovered the rock formations only one or two million years ago (Field Notes (more info) ).
Devil's Tower is considered a sacred landmark by more than 20 Native American tribes. The Lakota refer to Devil's Tower as Bear Lodge, and historically used this sacred place for funerals, prayer offerings, sweatlodge ceremonies, as well as their Sun Dance ritual (Devil's Tower: Sacred Place (more info) ). For more information about the sacred ties of Native Americans to Devil's Tower, click here (more info)