The purpose of this study guide is to help teachers prepare a unit using the information presented on this website. To explore some of the different approaches that can be taken, follow the links below.
The Starting Point project is exploring the ability of on-line resources to catalyze improvements in undergraduate teaching. The goal is to develop a resource that intimately integrates pedagogy with teaching resources and fully supports a virtual community of educators. Starting Point attempts to bridge the gap between information about teaching methods and the everyday experiences of geoscience faculty by providing geoscience specific arguments and examples. In every case, Starting Point tries to provide all of the information needed for a faculty member or graduate student to make an informed decision about the methodology that they use in a particular teaching situation, and to implement a technique easily and well.
Earth System Approach
The Earth system is often represented by interlinking and interacting "spheres" of processes and phenomena, including the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, geosphere, cryosphere, and anthroposphere. The difficulty with any representation that divides the system is the danger of continuing a deconstructed perception of the holistic Earth system - in reality no part of the Earth system can be considered in isolation from any other part. An understanding of these complex interrelationships will give birth to an educated generation of geoscientists who can better address fundamental Earth problems.
Using Investigative Case Studies
Investigative case-based learning encourages students to develop questions that can be explored further by reasonable investigative approaches. Students then gather data and information for testing their hypotheses. They produce materials which can be used to persuade others of their findings. Students employ a variety of methods and resources, including traditional laboratory and field techniques, software simulations and models, data sets, internet-based tools and information retrieval methods.
The Jigsaw Method
Using this method, students are assigned to investigate different aspects of the same problem or issue. For example, each team might analyze a different but related data set or read an article on different aspects or viewpoints on the same topic. Once each team member thoroughly understands his/her team's aspect of the problem, new groups are formed, with at least one representative from each original team. Each individual then explains her/his team's aspect of the problem to the new group. In this way, every student learns every aspect of the problem. Each group then uses combined information to evaluate a summary issue ([Tewksbury, 1995] ).
Jigsaw activity using this website
Role Playing Exercises
In most role-playing exercises, each student takes the role of a person affected by an Earth science issue, such as the impacts of resource development on Native American lands, and studies the impacts of Earth science issues on human life and/or the effects of human activities on the world around us from the perspective of that person. This sort of exercise could also be used as a debate by dividing a class into Native American peoples and the Federal Government.
Role play activity using this website
Open-ended questions allow students to explore scientifically significant questions while focusing on their own interests. Follow this link to explore a few questions that are important to understanding resource development on Native American lands.
Exploration questions using this website
Developing Concept Maps
Concept Maps are visual representations of linkages/connections between a major concept and other knowledge students have learned. Concept maps are excellent tools to provide instructors with diagnostic pre-assessment prior to beginning a unit and formative assessments during learning activities. Concept Maps also provide immediate visual data to geoscience instructors on student misconceptions and their level of understanding. Angelo and Cross (1993) indicate that Concept Maps develop student abilities in certain critical areas including the ability to draw reasonable inferences from observations, the ability to synthesize and integrate information and ideas, and the ability to learn concepts and theories in the subject area.