General Teaching

Anderson, L.W., & Krathwohl, D. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision to Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Longman.

Angelo, T.A., & Cross, P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bransford, J.D., Brown, A.L., & Cocking, R.R. (Eds.). (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Mazur, E. (1997). Peer instruction: A user's manual. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

General Clicker-Related (Not discipline-specific)

Abrahamson, L. (2006). A brief history of network classrooms: Effects, cases, pedagogy, and implications. In D.A. Banks (Ed.), Audience response systems in higher education: Applications and cases. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing.

Banks, D.A. (Ed.), Audience response systems in higher education: Applications and cases. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing.

Barber, M., and Njus, D. (2007). Clicker Evolution: Seeking Intelligent Design. CBE-Life Sciences Education 6(1), 1-8.

Briggs, L. (2008, March 26). Ten tips for injecting new technology into your campus. Campus Technology.

Bruff, D. (2007). Clickers: A classroom innovation. National Education Association Advocate, 25(1), 5-8.

Bruff, D. (2009). Teaching with Classroom Response Systems: Creating Active Learning Environments. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Sixteen Suggestions for Teaching with Classroom Response Systems is an excerpt from this book, published on the Tomorrow's Professor Mailing List.

Caldwell, J.E. (2007). Clickers in the large classroom: Current research and best-practice tips. Life Sciences Education, 6(1), 9-20.

Fies, C., & Marshall, J. (2006). Classroom response systems: A review of the literature. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 15(1), 101-109.

Graham, C.R., Tripp, T.R., Seawright, L., & Joeckel, G.L. (2007). Empowering or compelling reluctant participators using audience response systems. Active Learning in Higher Edcuation, 8(3), 233-258.

Judson, E., & Sawada, D. (2006). Audience response systems: Insipid contrivances or inspiring tools? In D.A. Banks (Ed.), Audience response systems in higher education: Applications and cases. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing.

Lyman, A. (1981). The responsive classroom discussion. In A.S. Anderson, ed., Mainstreaming Digest. College Park, MD: University of Maryland College of Education.

Simpson, V., & Oliver, M. (2007). Electronic voting systems for lectures then and now: A comparison of research and practice. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 123(2), 187-208.

Trees, A.R., & Jackson, M.H. (2007). The learning environment in clicker classrooms: Student processes of learning and involvement in large university-level courses using student response systems. Learning, Media, and Technology, 32(1), 21-40.

Twetten, J., Smith, M.K., Julius, J., & Murphy-Boyer, L. (2007). Successful clicker standardization. EDUCAUSE Quarterly, 30(4), 63-67.


Cummings, R.G. and Hsu, M. (2007). The Effects of student response systems on performance and satisfaction: an investigation in a tax accounting class. Journal of College Teaching and Learning 4(12), 21-26.

Freeman, M., Bell, A., Comerton-Forder, C., Pickering, J., & Blayney, P. (2007). Factors affecting educational innovation within class electronic response systems. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 23(2), 149-170.

Freeman, M., Blayney, P., & Ginns, P. (2006). Anonymity and in class learning: The case for electronic response systems. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 22(4), 568-580.


Len, P.M. (2007). Different reward structures to motivate student interaction with electronic response systems in astronomy. Astronomy Education Review, 5(2), 5-15.


Bunce, D.M., VandenPlas, J., & Havanki, K. (2006). Comparing the effectivesness on student achievement of a student response system versus online WebCT quizzes. Journal of Chemical Education, 83(3), 488-493.

Knight, J.K., and Wood, W.B. (2005). Teaching more by lecturing less. Cell Biology Education 4, 298-310.

Wood, W.B. (2004). Clickers: a teaching gimmick that works. Dev. Cell 7(6), 796-798.


Becker, W.E., & Watts, M. (eds). (1998). Teaching Economics to Undergraduates: Alternatives to Chalk and Talk, Northampton: Edward Elgar

Becker, W.E., & Watts, M., & Becker, S. (eds) (2006). Teaching Economics to Undergraduates: More Alternatives to Chalk and Talk, Northampton: Edward Elgar

Bergstrom, Theodore C. (2009). Teaching Economic Principles Interactively: A Cannibal's Dinner Party. Journal of Economic Education, 40(4), 366-384.

Ghosh, S., & Francesco, R. (2009). Using Electronic Response Systems in Economics Classes. Journal of Economic Education, 40(4), 354-365.

Hinde, K., & Hunt, A. (2006). Using the personal response system to enhance student learning: Some evidence from teaching economics. In D.A. Banks (Ed.), Audience response systems in higher education: Applications and cases. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing.

Salemi, M. (2009). Clickenomics: Using a Classroom Response System to Increase Student Engagement in a Large-Enrollment Principles of Economics Course. Journal of Economic Education, 40(4), 385-404.

Walstad, W.B., & Saunders, P. (1998) Teaching Undergraduate Economics: a handbook for instructors, Burr Ridge: Irwin McGraw-Hill


Jenkins, A. (2007). Technique and technology: Electronic voting systems in an English literature lecture. Pedagogy, 7(3), 526-533.


Caron, P.L., & Gely, R. (2004). Taking back the law school classroom: Using technology to foster active student learning. Journal of Legal Education, 54, 551-569.


Judson, E., & Sawada, D. (2002). Learning from past and present: Electronic response systems in college lecture halls. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 21(2), 167-181.

Multiple Disciplines

Barnett, J. (2006). Implementation of personal response units in very large lecture classes: Student perceptions. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 22(4), 474-494. [Study from Biology and Physics]

Deal, A. (2007). Classroom Response Systems: A Teaching with Technology White Paper from Carnegie Mellon University's Eberly Center for Teaching Excellence (accessed 27 February 2010). [Studies from a variety of disciplines and institutions]

Draper, S.W. (2002). Evaluating effective use of PRS: results of the evaluation of the use of PRS in Glasgow University, October 2001-June 2002. (accessed 27 February 2010). [Study from Philosophy, Psychology, Computing Science, Medicine, Vet school, Dental Hospital]

Draper, S.W., & Brown, M.I. (2004). Increasing interactivity in lectures using an electronic voting system. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 20(2), 81-94. [Study from Medicine, Dentistry, Veterinary Science, Biology, Psychology, Computing Science, Statistics, and Philosophy]

Herreid, C.F. (2006). "Clicker" cases: Introducing case study teaching into large classrooms. Journal of College Science Teaching, 36(2), 43-47. [Documents studies from Astronomy and Physics]

Kaleta, R., & Joosten, T. (2007). Student response systems: A University of Wisconsin study of clickers. Retrieved June 23, 2009, from [Study representing 19 disciplines]

MacGeorge, E.L., Homan, S.R., Dunning, J.B., Elmore, D., Bodie, G.D., Khichadia, S., et al. (2007). Student evaluation of audience response technology in large lecture classes. Educational Technology Research and Development, 56, 125-145. [Study from Communications, Forestry, and Organizational Leadership]

Nagy-Shadman, E., Desrochers, C. (2008). Student response technology: Empirically grounded or just a gimmick? International Journal of Science Education, 1-44, iFirst Article. [Study from 13 lower-division science classes]


Halloran, L. (1995). A comparison of two methods of teaching: computer managed instruction and keypad questions versus traditional classroom lecture. Comput. Nursing 13(6), 285-288.


Stuart, S.A.J., Brown, M.I., & Draper, S.W. (2004). Using an electronic voting system in logic lectures: One practitioner's application. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 20(2), 95-102.


Beatty, I.D. (2004). Transforming student learning with classroom communication systems. Educause Center for Applied Research, Boulder Colorado, Research Bulletin, February 3, 1-13.

Beatty, I.D., Gerace, W.J., Leonard, W.J., & Dufresne, R.J. (2006). Designing effective questions for classroom response system teaching. American Journal of Physics, 74(1), 31-39.

Beatty, I.D., Gerace, W.J., Leonard, W.J., & Dufresne, R.J. (2006). Question driven instruction: Teaching science (well) with an audience response system. In D.A. Banks (Ed.), Audience response systems in higher education: Applications and cases. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing.

Burnstein, R.A., and Lederman, L.M. (2003). Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems. The Physics Teacher 41: 272-275.

Crouch, C.H., J. Watkins, A.P. Gagen and E. Mazur. (2007). Peer instruction: Engaging students one-on-one, all at once. In Redish, E.F. and P. Cooney, eds., Research-Based Reform of University Physics, 1(1), (accessed 27 February 2010).

Pollock, S., and K. Perkins. (2004). Increasing student engagement in large classes: A departmental case study. Forum on Education of the American Physical Society, (accessed 27 February 2010).

Wieman, C., and K. Perkins. (2005). Transforming physics education. Physics Today 58(11): 36-41.


Stowell, J.R., & Nelson, J.M. (2007). Benefits of electronic audience response systems on student participation, learning, and emotion. Teaching of Psychology, 34(4), 253-258.