The U.S. EEOC website on Facts About Sexual Harassment states that "Sexual harassment is a form of sex discrimination that violates Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Title VII applies to employers with 15 or more employees, including state and local governments. It also applies to employment agencies and to labor organizations, as well as to the federal government".
The Scope of the Problem
- Not a Fluke: That Case of Sexual Harassment or Assault is not an isolated Incident!--Julie Libarkin, Geocognition Research Laboratory at Michigan State University, has posted this compilation of documented cases of sexual harassment or assault. As of 12/20/2016 there are 485 documented cases and counting! See also Title IX Tracking Sexual Assault Investigations--compiled by the Chronicle of Higher Education.
- Recent news articles have revealed that sexual harassment is an endemic problem across the STEM disciplines.
- The December 29 article from Wired Magazine on Harassment in the Sciences provides a month recap of 2016 news stories on this topic.
- AAU Climate Survey on Sexual Assault and Sexual Misconduct
- Scientific misconduct: why is science such fertile ground for harassment and what can be done about it?-- Turner, N. E. (2018). Phi Kappa Phi Forum, 98(1), 10-13.
- Sexual Harassment: Defining the Problem--posted by John Johnson, May 12, 2014, in Women in Astronomy.
- Holding Space for Victims of Harassment--Colleen Flaherty, December 8, 2917 Inside Higher Education. A crowd-sourced survey of sexual harassment in academe has over 1200 entries and counting. "The "systematic protection" of abusers over victims, stood out, too, demonstrating the "sheer force of patriarchal solidarity in keeping powerful men safe and insulated from consequences," she said. There are also recurrent, "devastating" consequences for women -- and the academy, in terms of women's lost contributions when they grapple with harassment."
- Worse Than it Seems--Colleen Flaherty, from Inside Higher Education, posted July 18, 2017. "New study of harassment of graduate students by faculty members suggests that the problem is worse -- both in level of offense and prevalence of repeat offenders -- than many believe." The primary study A Systematic Look at a Serial Problem: Sexual Harassment of Students by University Faculty--Cantalupo, Nancy Chi and Kidder, William. Utah Law Review, Forthcoming. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2971447 posted May 22 2017,
- Abusers and Enablers in Faculty Culture--K.A. Amienne, Chronicle of Higher Education, posted November 2, 2017.
- Science Suffers From Harassment--Scientific American, The Editors, January 24, 2018
- Quality of evidence revealing subtle gender biases in science is in the eye of the beholder--Ian M. Handley, Elizabeth R. Brown, Corinne A. Moss-Racusin, and Jessi L. Smith, vol 112 #43, 13201-13206, posted October 27, 2015. See also Gendered Skepticism--Collen Flaherty, from Inside Higher Education, posted January 8, 2015; "New study on online comments suggests big gap in the way men and women perceive evidence of gender bias in sciences. What does that mean for efforts to diversify STEM?"
- The Unexpected Effects of a Sexual Harassment Educational Program--Shereen G. Bingham and Lisa L. Scherer, Jour. of Applied Behavioral Science, Vol. 37#2, June 2001, 125-131; "Male participants were less likely than other groups to perceive coercive sexual harassment, less willing to report sexual harassment, and more likely to blame the victim."
- Holland Kathryn J., and Cortina, Lilia M., Sexual Harassment: Undermining the Wellbeing of Working Women. 2016, Chapter 6 in M.L. Connerley and J. Wu (eds.), Handbook on Well-Being of Working Women, 83
International Handbooks of Quality-of-Life, DOI 10.1007/978-94-017-9897-6_6, 2016
- House Science Subcommittee Hearing Targets Sexual Harassment--Cartier, K. M. S. (2018), House science subcommittee hearing targets sexual harassment, Eos, 99, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018EO094063. Published on 28 February 2018. Testimony from Christine McEntee (AGU Executive Director), Katherine Clancy (associate professor of anthropology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Rhonda Davis (NSF Office of Diversity and Inclusion), and Kristina Larsen (lawyer). See the video of this session at the Subcommittee on Research and Technology Hearing - A Review of Sexual Harassment and Misconduct in Science, U.S.House of Representatives Committee on Science, Space and Technology.
Impacts: They Are Real, Destructive, and Often Irreparable
(Unfortunately, this is only a sampling of cases too numerous to count.....)
- How Sexual Harassment Halts Science--Vince Grzegorek published in SLATE.
- What Happens When a Harassment Whistleblower Goes on the Science Job Market?--Sarah Scoles, 7/17/2016 from Wired.
- How Women are Harassed Out of Science--Joan C. Williams and Kate Massinger, Atlantic Magazine, July 25, 2016
- Coming Out of the Shadows: A Sexual Harassment Story--Joan Schmelz, posted February 17, 2011 on Blogspot.
- From the Field: Hazed Tells Her Story of Harassment--Kate Clancy, January 30, 2012, Scientific American
- What Happens When Sex Harassment Disrupts Victims' Academic Careers--Nell Gluckman, December 6, 2017, The Chronicle of Higher Education.
- Abusers and Enablers in Faculty Culture--K.A. Amienne, Chronicle of Higher Education, November 2, 2017.
- What Happens When Sexual Harassment Disrupts Victims' Academic Careers?--Nell Gluckman, Chronicle of Higher Education, December 6, 2017.
- I Spoke Up Against My Harasser and Paid a Steep Price--Stephanie Singer, Chronicle of Higher Education, December 6, 2017
- Academic Correlates of Unwanted Sexual Contact, Intercourse, Stalking, and Intimate Partner Violence: An Understudied but Important Consequence for College Students--V.L. Barnyard et al., Journal of Interpersonal Violence, published online June 21, 2017. "...victimized students reporting lower academic efficacy, higher college-related stress, lower institutional commitment, and lower scholastic conscientiousness."
- When a Professor is Sexually Harassed by a Student--from Inside Higher Education, posted May 5, 2017
- Tolerating Sexual Harassment: A Personal Reckoning--Jennifer Berdahl's Blog
- Title IX Officers Pay a Price for Navigating a Volatile Issue--Robin Wilson, from Chronicle of Higher Education, posted October 16, 2016
- When Students Harass Professors--Colleen Flaherty, from Inside Higher Education, Posted March 5, 2018. ""Contra-power" harassment of professors by students isn't that common, but it's a real problem". Faculty careers can be destroyed by unwanted sexual advances from students. "...advised fellow professors who are harassed by students to search out campus Title IX procedures and to make sure that all communication with the student is in writing via email, to serve as permanent date and time stamps....Remember that you do not have to allow yourself to be revictimized. You do not have to continue to sit in meetings telling your story over and over again," the adjunct wrote. "You do have the right to legal counsel. File a complaint with the federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission office in your state if you feel your case has not been handled appropriately by your employer."
Support for Targets of Harassment
- Know your IX--advice and resources on Supporting a Survivor the Basics; Supporting a Survivor of Dating Violence; Tips for Parents, Guardians and Family Members; Tips for Friends; Tips for Teachers and Professors.
- Know Your IX-Friends and Family--tips for family, friends, professors ....
- NOT ALONE The First Report of the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault--2014; "Sexual violence is more than just a crime against individuals. It threatens our families, it threatens our communities; ultimately, it threatens the entire country. It tears apart the fabric of our communities. And that's why we're here today--because we have the power to do something about it as a government, as a nation. We have the capacity to stop sexual assault, support those who have survived it, and bring perpetrators to justice. President Barack Obama, January 22, 2014."
- National Science Foundation Important Notice 144 Harassment--"The National Science Foundation (NSF) does not tolerate sexual harassment, or any kind of harassment, within the agency, at grantee organizations, field sites, or anywhere NSF-funded science and education are conducted. The 2,000 American colleges, universities and other institutions that receive NSF funds are responsible for fully investigating complaints and for complying with federal non-discrimination law." Find other NSF resources on Sexual Harassment. See also the related article US Science Agency Will Require Universities to Report Sexual Harassment--Alexandra Witze, Nature News, February 8, 2018.
- NSF Steps Against Harassment
- NSF's Website on Sexual Harassment--links to policies and resources.
- The Nationals Science Foundation Will Not Tolerate Harassment at Grantee Institutions--NSF Policy Statement, 25 January 2016
- Notification Requirements REgarding Findings of Sexual Harassment, Other Forms of Harassment, or Sexual Assault--A notice by NSF reported in the Federal Register, September 21, 2018.
- The National Academy of Sciences Committee on Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop to address Impacts of Sexual Harassment in Academia on March 28, 2017. See the article in April 7, 2017 EOS that reports on this issue: Tackling Sexual Harassment in Science: A Long Road Ahead. The Committee on Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine (CWSEM) convened a series of 5 workshops and will issue a report at the end of this study.
- National Institutes of Health Anti-Sexual Harassment Website
- AAAS Issues Fellow Revocation Policy on Misconduct--from Inside Higher Education, September 17, 2018. View the AAAS Revocation Policy
- Select Task Force on the Study of Harassment in the Workplace--2016 U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
- Tackling the Childcare-Conference Conundrum--Colleen Flaherty, from Inside Higher Education, posted March 14, 2018; "Primary caretakers of dependent children "face inequitable hurdles to fully attending and participating in conference activities because of responsibilities related to pregnancy, breastfeeding and caretaking," the article says. "It's a serious problem because it creates a culture of inequity for parents, with mothers generally experiencing greater disadvantages than fathers because of biological, prejudicial, and often socially driven childcare demands." See the Opinion Piece in PNAS Opinion--How to tackle the childcare-conference conundrum--Rebecca M. Calisi and a Working Group of Mothers in Science, PNAS 2018; published ahead of print March 5, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1803153115 .
- A model program for institutional change Athena Swan programâ€“from the UK's Equality Challenge Unit for advancing equality and diversity in colleges and universities; includes a wealth of resources on promoting good relations, and tackling sexual harassment and violence. "ECU's equality charters enable organisations to apply for an award recognising their commitment to, and progress on, equality and diversity.
- In the United States, a similar program is being developed by AAAS/AGU in the STEM Equity Achievement (SEA) Change Awards (Acrobat (PDF) 305kB Feb15 18); and see related article UK Gender-Equity Scheme spreads across the world (Acrobat (PDF) 261kB Feb15 18)--Elizabeth Gibney, Nature, Vol. 549, p. 143-144, posted 14 September 2017.
- Should institutions explicitly address "Rape Culture" in their sexual misconduct policies? Read this article from Inside Higher Education (posted November 7, 2016)
- Whom Does Secrecy Protect?--article from Inside Higher Education. "Colleges don't tell students that professors are being investigated -- or even had been found guilty of -- harassment. Berkeley grad students demand change in this practice."
- Addressing Sexual Harassment in the Science, Engineering, and Medical Workplaces A Scoping Workshop Summary--National Academy of Sciences, Committee on Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine (CWSEM) Workshop 2016.
- Sexual Harassment in the Sciences: A Call to Respond (9 September, 2016 Workshop) convened by AAAS, NSF, AGU, ACS, AWG.
- Burden of Proof in the Balance--Jake New, December 16, 2016 from Inside Higher Education; "If Trump administration changes the rules on colleges' obligations in adjudicating sex assault charges, will institutions change their policies?"
- Complaints of sexual harassment and other forms of discrimination are addressed by the Department of Education's Office of Civil Rights. In the 2016 OCR report Securing Equal Educational Opportunity, a record 16,720 complaints were filed in the past year according to an article in Inside Higher Education. A companion article, Campus Sexual Assault in a Trump Era (November 10, 2016, Inside Higher Education) reports: "President-elect Trump has offered few details on how his administration might deal with campus sexual assault, but his surrogates and other Republicans say they would scale back enforcement of Title IX". And Burden of Proof in the Balance--from Inside Higher Education, Jake New, December 16, 2016; "If Trump administration changes the rules on colleges' obligations in adjudicating sex assault charges, will institutions change their policies?"
- House Committee Requests GAO Report on Seual Harassment by Federallhy Funded Researchers--Colleen Flaherty, from Inside Higher Education, posted January 19, 2018; "Leaders of the U.S. House Science, Space and Technology Committee from both parties on Thursday asked the Government Accountability Office to report on sexual harassment by federally funded researchers -- including how many harassment cases are pending before federal agencies and how many have been investigated and resolved since 2013."
- What is UW-Madison Doing to Identify and Address Sexual Misconduct by Faculty and Staff?--Posted January 31, 2018, Chancellor Blank. And see related article New UW-Madison website to help faculty, staff cope with workplace bullying==Pat Schneider, The Cap times, posted January 29, 2018. Visit the UW-M website on Hostile and Intimidating Behavior--contains information on principles, policies, campus resources, and methods to address and prevent hostile and intimidating behavior.
- Sex Assault Bill Unveiled--Michael Stratford, from Inside Higher Education, posted July 31, 2014. "Bipartisan Senate bill would stiffen penalties on colleges and require campus climate surveys. College lobbyists are skeptical of much of the legislation."
- Sexual Misconduct Climate Survey--Penn State Student Affairs Research and Assessment. A good example of an institution "taking the pulse" of students' campus experience as related to sexual misconduct. Results are available on line. See the 2015 Sexual Misconduct Climate Survey Instrument. Is this an exercise that would be useful at your department or institution?
- Zero Tolerance. Period--Bernard Wood, Science, vol 350 issue 6260, pp. 487; posted 30 October 2015.
Professional Societies Respond
- The American Geophysical Union (AGU) Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics policy was re-written in 2016 and took the bold step of revising its ethics policy to treat harassment (including sexual harassment), discrimination and bullying as scientific misconduct, with the same types of penalties for offenders. See the related commentary Science Suffers from Harassement--Scientific American commentary posted January 24, 2018
American Geosciences Institute Statement on Harassment in the Geosciences
- Sexual Harassment in the Sciences: A Call to Respond AGU press release and AGU-Sponsored Workshop Targets Sexual Harassment in the Sciences EOS article about the 9 September 2016 workshop sponsored by AGU, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Chemical Society, American Geosciences Institute, Association for Women Geoscientists, and Earth Science Women's Network. Read the Draft Organizational Principles for Addressing Harassment (Acrobat (PDF) 611kB Jan8 17)
- See AGU's webpages on Harassment and Ethics, and the more encompassing AGU Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics Policy (2013)
- The 2016 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting (see Events on Ethics, Response to Harassment and Work-climate) embarked on a Safe AGU (Acrobat (PDF) 141kB Jan3 17) campaign that included numerous workshops and theme sessions, and the annual AGU Heads and Chairs Meeting held a half day session on "Addressing harassment and improving workplace climate" led by Rebecca Haacker, Director SOARS Program UCAR, Carolyn Brinkworth, Director of Diversity, Education and Outreach, NCAR, David Mogk, Professor of Geology, Montana State University. (See the program for the slide sets and related resources)
- Anti-Harassment Policy for AAS & Division Meetings and Activities--policies developed by the American Astronomical Society.
- The 2015 AGU Meeting held a Town Hall Meeting on Forward Focused Ethics--What is the Role of Scientific Societies in Responding to Harassment and other Workplace Climate Issues?-- (watch the YouTube Recording)
- Removing Barriers to Career Progression for Women in the Geosciences--Geological Society of America draft Position Statement (posted in GSA Today January 2018)
- Steps to Building a No-Tolerance Culture for Sexual Harassment--MarÃ­n-Spiotta, E., B. Schneider, and M. A. Holmes (2016), Steps to building a no-tolerance culture for sexual harassment, Eos, 97, doi:10.1029/2016EO044859. Published on 28 January 2016.
- Race and Gender Still an issue at academic conferences--The Conversation, posted April 22, 2018. "...in all-male sessions, questions tended to be more aggressive with more arguments and interruptions. Meanwhile, in sessions where half or more presenters were women, the questions were more constructive and often complimentary."
- Sexual Harassment and Scientific Community--From the Prow statement by By Margaret Leinen, President, American Geophysical Union, Eric Davidson, President-elect, American Geophysical Union, and Carol Finn, Past President, American Geophysical Union
- Senior Scientists Must Engage in the Fight Against Harassment-- Diniega, S., J. Tan, M. S. Tiscareno, and E. Wehner (2016), Senior scientists must engage in the fight against harassment, Eos, 97, doi:10.1029/2016EO058767. Published on 08 September 2016.
- Removing Barriers to Career Progression for Women in the Geosciences--Geological Society of America draft Position Statement (posted in GSA Today January 2018)
- Sexual Harassment in the Sciences: A Call to Geoscience Faculty and Researchers to Respond (Acrobat (PDF) 65kB Jan3 17)-editorial by Kristin St. John, Eric Riggs, and David Mogk published in the Journal of Geoscience Education, 2016, v. 64, p. 255-257.
- Zero Tolerance. Period.--Bernard Wood, editorial in Science Magazine, 30 Oct 2015: Vol. 350, Issue 6260, pp. 487DOI: 10.1126/science.aad6652
- The Sexual Misconduct Case that Rocked Anthropology--Michael Balter, February 9, 2016, Posted in Scientific Community, DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf4016
- Title IX and STEM--resources from American Women in Science (AWIS)
- Academic Community Responds to Harassment Cases--Toni Feder, Physics Today 69(6), 30 (2016); doi: 10.1063/PT.3.3195
- Confronting Sexual Harassment in Science--Cristine Russell, Scientific American, posted October 27, 2017.
- Statement of Professional Ethics--American Association of University Professors. Item 3: "As colleagues, professors have obligations that derive from common membership in the community of scholars. Professors do not discriminate against or harass colleagues."
- Sexual Harassment in the Sciences: Response by the Professional Societies--AGI Currents #125, posted March 15, 2018. Authored by Blair Schneider (University of Kansas), Mary Anne Holmes (University of Nebraska - Lincoln), Erika Marin-Spiotta (University of Wisconsin-Madison).
- Geological Society of America Position Statement, Removing Barriers to Career Progression for Women in the Geosciences
- GSA 2018 Annual Meeting Pardee Symposium--P2. Women Rising: Removing Barriers and Achieving Parity in the Geosciences--watch the recorded Live Stream. Pardee Symposium Program and links to related resources.
Policies, Procedures and Guidance
The U.S. EEOC provides Policy Guidelines for cases of sexual harassment regarding Title VII related to:
- determining whether sexual conduct is "unwelcome";
- evaluating evidence of harassment;
- determining whether a work environment is sexually "hostile";
- holding employers liable for sexual harassment by supervisors; and
- evaluating preventive and remedial action taken in response to claims of sexual harassment. Similar policies are in place in France: Scientific Guidelines for Dealing with Sexual Harassment (Acrobat (PDF) 72kB Jan8 17)
Balancing Rights: Confidentiality, Due Process, and the Need to Act
- Title IX Protects Identities But Can Complicate Justice--Podcast from NPR documenting a court case involving sexual assault case of two female students by a professor at the University of Kentucky.
- Innocent Until Proven Guilty is Nonsense for Faculty Hiring--Jon Wilkins posted on Lost in Transcription February 5, 2015
- Call for Due Process for Accused Berkeley Professor--by Colleen Flaherty, November 21, 2016 from Inside Higher Education
- And an alternate response to this case Whom Does Secrecy Protect?-- by Colleen Flaherty, November 17, 2016 from Inside Higher Education
- Was MSU Slow to Act on Removing Troubled Professor and (Bozeman) Chronicle challenges sealed ruling in MSU professors' investigation--articles documenting steps taken in response to complaints about sexual assault and bullying by faculty in the Dept. of Earth Sciences, Montana State University
- Super-Majority Requirement in the MInority--Jake New, posted January 6, 2017 in Inside Higher Education. "Stanford faces criticism for policies requiring a super majority or unanimous vote when deciding responsibility in sexual misconduct cases. Few other institutions have a similar process."
- College Lawyers Say Title IX Process Must be Fair to Both Parties-- Eric Kelderman, Chronicle of Higher Education, June 26, 2017.
- Not so Cold Cases, After All--Colleen Flaherty, Inside Higher Education, November 13, 2017. "What's to be done about the numerous reports of faculty misconduct dating back years and even decades?"
- Not So Cold Cases After All--Colleen Flaherty, from Inside Higher Education, posted November 13, 2017; "What's to be done about the numerous reports of faculty misconduct dating back years and even decades?"
- Legal Rights and Ethical Responsibilities--"The relationship between laws and ethics is not always clear. Although we may have a legal right to do something, this does not necessarily mean it is ethically justified." From Ethics Unwrapped, McCombs School of Business, University of Texas-Austin.
- Outsourcing Rape Investigations--Jeremy Bauer-Wolf, from Inside Higher Education, posted October 9, 2017. "Some colleges hire outside parties to look into and judge sexual assault cases, a move meant to ensure fairness in the process."
- Court Finds Due Process Denied in Sex Assault Case--Jeremy Bauer-Wolf, from Inside Higher Education, posted September 26, 2017. "Federal panel blocks suspension of University of Cincinnati graduate student, saying institution did not respect his constitutional rights after he was accused of sexual assault."
- Dealing with Unethical or Illegal Conduct in Higher Education--Tomorrow's Professor posting 1622, by Anna Azvolinsky and is from the November 1, 2017 Careers issue of The Scientist. http://www.the-scientist.com/ . Â© copyright 2008-2017, The Scientist. All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission. Includes: How to fire a professor.
- The Chance to Question Your Accuser--Jeremy Bauer-Wolf, from Inside Higher Education, posted August 6, 2018: "After a recent court ruling, University of Michigan must sponsor a special live hearing for a student accused of sexual assault to challenge his accuser."
- EEOC Fact Sheet on Sexual Harassment
- RAINN--The nation's largest anti-sexual violence organization. A wealth of great resources.
- Talking About Sexual Assault--Society's Response to Survivors--Sarah Ullman, 2010, American Psychological Association, 209p.
- Steps for Building a No-Tolerance Culture for Sexual Harassment MarÃ­n-Spiotta, E., B. Schneider, and M. A. Holmes (2016), Eos, 97, doi:10.1029/2016EO044859. Published on 28 January 2016
- Sexual Harassment Resources--US Dept of Education
- Holmes, M. A., S. O'Connell and K. Dutt (Eds.) (2015), Women in the Geosciences: Practical, Positive Practices Toward Parity, 192 pp., John Wiley, Hoboken, N.J.
- AWIS Webinars On Demand: "No Means No: Respond to Harassment in the Moment" and "Spot and Stop It: How to End Harassment at Professional Meetings" (NOTE: You must be an AWIS member to access these webinars).
- The Center for Changing Our Campus Culture: An Online Resource to Address Sexual Assault, Domestic Violence, Dating Violence and Stalking--Office on Violence Against Women, U.S. Department of Justice.
- Prevention Innovations Research Center--University of New Hampshire
- Guidelines on Dealing with Sexual Harassment (Acrobat (PDF) 72kB Feb16 18)--From Science PO, France. (Contributed by Catherine Chauvel)
- Campus Sexual Assault A Reference Handbook--by Allison E. Hatch, ABC-CLIO. Great documentation of the issues, and strategies to prevent and act upon instances of sexual assault.
Case Studies--In the News
- Famous Berkeley Astronomer Violated Sexual Harassment Policies Over Many Years--from Buzzfeed News documenting the Geoff March case at UC Berkeley.
- Out Here, No one Can Hear You Scream--reported sexual harassment and assault in the National Park Service. and US Forest Service. Huffington Post, story by Kathryn Joyce
- She Wanted to do her Research; He Wanted to Talk "Feelings"--N.Y. Times Opinion Article, 3 March 2016, Hope Jahren.
- Caltech suspends professor for harassment--as reported in the January 12, 2016 issues of Science.
- Social Behaviour: Indecent Advances--Virginia Gewin, 2015, Nature, v. 519, p. 251-253, doi:10.1038/nj7542-251a, Published online 11 March 2015
- Science's Sexual Assault Problem--Hope Jahren, September 18, 2014, New York Times
- A Student's Experience of Sexual Harassment from a Teaching Assistant--a case study posted at Ethics Core.
- From Texas to the Smithsonian, Following a Trail of Sexual Misconduct--Michael Balter, posted October 24, 2016 on The Verge.
- Indecent Advances--Virginia Gewin, Nature, 519, 251-253, published 11 March 2015.
- Disturbing Allegations of Sexual Harassment in Antarctica Leveled at Noted Scientist--Meredith Wadman, Science, posted October 6, 2017.
- Boston University "....moves to terminate professor after high-profile investigation into claims that he harassed a former graduate student in Antarctica in 1999."--Colleen Flaherty, Inside Higher Education, November 20, 2017.
- How Women are Harassed Out of Science--Joan C. Williams and Kate Massinger, The Atlantic, posted July 25, 2016.
- Sexual Harassment in a Culture of Exploitation--Tara Dorje, from Inside Higher Education, posted May 5, 2017; "...examines how the power dynamics between faculty members and grad students make it especially difficult to deal effectively with sexual assault and harassment."
- Month by Month, 2016 Cemented Science's Sexual Harassment Problem--Sarah Scoles, Wired, posted December 29, 2016.
- A Student's Experience of Sexual Harassment from a Teaching Assistant--a case study developed by Caroline Whitbeck from the Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science
- Creating an Academic Environment Hostile to Sexual Misconduct--from Small Pond Science; a disturbing and graphic personal account.
Sexual Harassment in the Field
- Survey of Academic Field Experiences (SAFE): Trainees Report Harassment and Assault, Kathryn B. H. Clancy , Robin G. Nelson, Julienne N. Rutherford, Katie Hinde, Published: July 16, 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102172
Out Here No One Can Hear You Scream--reported sexual harassment and assault in the National Park Service. and US Forest Service. Huffington Post, story by Kathryn Joyce
- Signaling Safety: Characterizing Fieldwork Experiences and Their Implications for Career Trajectories--Robin G. Nelson, Julienne N. Rutherford, Karie Hinde, and Kathryn B.H. Clancy, 2017, American Anthropologist, vol 119 #4, PP. 710-722. A follow up to the 2014 SAFE report. 26 interviews were conducted that revealed 2 themes: "1) variability in clarity of appropriate professional behavior and rules at fieldsites, and (2) access, or obstacles therein, to professional resources and opportunity. In some instances, respondent narratives recalled a lack of consequences for violations of rules governing appropriate conduct. These violations included harassment and assault, and ultimately disruptions to career trajectories." And see the related commentary Harassment in the Field--Colleen Flaherty, Inside Higher Education, posted October 17, 2017.
- A Departmental Approach to Addressing the Problem of Sexual Harassment and Assault in Field Experiences--Walter Robinson, NAGT In the Trenches, 2016, v. 6 #2.
- Working in the Field: New Solutions for Old Problems--Caitlin Looby and Kathleen Treseder, American Women in Science, Fall 2015.
- Keck Geology Consortium Participant handbook for students, and for faculty Program Directors participating in field experiences, including sections on Sexual Assault and Harassment and Non-Fraternization policy (and alcohol and drug abuse policies).
- Another example of a sexual harassment policy for a field station: Toolik Field Station Sexual Misconduct and Title IX Training--Institute of Arctic Biology
- Sexual Harassment in Research Abroad--Kathrin Zippel, from Inside Higher Education, March 31, 2017; "Navigating an unfamiliar environment can amplify the challenges of developing strategies to avoid harassment, writes Kathrin Zippel, who offers some guidance."
Be Proactive, Have A Plan in Place
Now is the time to start the conversation and How to stop the sexual harassment of women in science: reboot the system (posted by Dr Zuleyka Zevallos on The Conversation, January 28,2016)
- Speak up!
- Lead by example.
- Make it easier to report abuse and harassment.
- Make sure the policies work.
- Make safety a day-to-day priority.
- Strategic planning. "Given that surveys find sexual harassment is a common experience, a strategic vision for a healthy, successful science organization needs to formulate clear targets and key performance indicators that directly address the elimination of harassment, gender bias, racial discrimination, and other forms of abuse
- Take a collective stand against harassment.
- Harassment and Workplace Climate: Policies and Strategies to Impact Cultural Change in the Geosciences--AGU/AGI Heads and Chairs webinar by Billy Williams, AGU V.P. for Ethics, Diversity and Inclusion. See webinar at YouTube.
- Steps for Building a No-Tolerance Culture for Sexual Harassment, MarÃ­n-Spiotta, E., B. Schneider, and M.A. Holmes (2016), Eos, 97, doi:10.1029/2016EO044859. Published on 28 January 2016
- Preventing Sexual Violence on College Campuses: Lessons from Research and Practice--prepared for the White House Task Force to Protect Students From Sexual Assault, April, 2014.
- This is a Field Guide for Responding to sexual harassment or sexual violence developed for UC-Irvine Field Stations; includes resources available and procedures. (A good model for other programs to develop for their own situations).
- Fed Up With Harassment: The Serial Harasser's Playbook--posted by John Johnson, May 14, 2014 on Women in Astronomy. Know the danger signs, be prepared to act!
- Fed Up With Sexual Harassment: Survival of the Clueless--posted by Joan Schmelz, March 13, 2014, in Women in Astronomy.
- Advice: Dealing with Discrimination and Sexual Harassment--Joan Schmelz, posted May 21, 2013, in Women in Astronomy.
- Senior Scientists Must Engage in the fight Against Sexual Harassment--Diniega, S., J. Tan, M. S. Tiscareno, and E. Wehner (2016), Senior scientists must engage in the fight against harassment, Eos, 97, https://doi.org/10.1029/2016EO058767. Published on 08 September 2016.
- A series of articles from Inside Higher Education
- Addressing Sexual Violence in Science--Maggie Hardy, April 14, 2017; "Learning to navigate safe relationships and thinking critically about sexual experiences is a hallmark of the college period."
- Responding to Students' Trauma Disclosures With Empathy--Marina Rosenthal, April 7, 2017; "...describes three actions she takes when she is feeling bewildered, despondent or incapacitated by a student's disclosure of sexual violence."
- Talk With Students About Sexual Assault--Shawn Patrick, April 7, 2017; "When we as professors have the courage to address sexual assault openly, we create trust and show students how to take a different stance toward violence."
- Sexual Harassment in Research Abroad--Kathrin Zippel, March 31, 2017; "Navigating an unfamiliar environment can amplify the challenges of developing strategies to avoid harassment."
- The Silencing of Sexual Violence Survivors--Sheila Liming, March 24, 2017; "Nondisclosure agreements in sexual assault cases are pervasive and pernicious, especially where student complaints against faculty or staff members are concerned."
- Teaching ABout Sexuality, Violence and Power--Jamie L. Small, March 17, 2017; "When the alleged perpetrator is a person with whom we feel some sort of affiliation or reverence, we start to make excuses and bend over backward to deny the plausibility of the victim's experience."
- Teaching Rape Culture--Cat Pause March 10, 2017; "Helping students become familiar with the concept of rape culture provides an opportunity for them to recognize their own values and beliefs in action."
- Amplifying the Voices of Sexual Violence Survivors--Eric Anthony Grollman, March 3, 2017, "It is more important than ever that we in higher education work to make space for survivors to tell their stories."
- The Unexpected Effects of a Sexual Harassment Educational Program--Shereen G. Bingham and Lisa L. Scherer, THE JOURNAL OF APPLIED BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE, Vol. 37 No. 2, June 2001 125-153. Sexual harassment programs must be done correctly to avoid adverse consequences: "(Male) program participation and employee gender interacted, indicating an adverse reaction to the program among male participants. Male participants were less likely than other groups to perceive coercive sexual harassment, less willing to report sexual harassment, and more likely to blame the victim."
- How to Get More Women to Report Sexual Harassment--Gretchen Carlson, New York Times Op-Ed, posted October 10, 2017. "Three factors that contribute to employees' reluctance to speak up when they witness sexual harassment: fear of retaliation; the "bystander effect" (we're less likely to come to the aid of victims when others are present); and a masculine culture that sees sexual harassment as acceptable....four solutions: Make employees aware of the problem so they know what they're seeing; tell employees they are responsible for stepping in and helping; increase employee accountability; and teach employees how to intervene. Policies and training that codify these solutions will go a long way, and don't require congressional action. Companies can also encourage action by appointing an independent ombudsman, or authorizing people across the organization to hear complaints."