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References and Resources for Just-in-Time Teaching

Web-Based Resources

General Information on Just-in-Time Teaching

  • Video-based Case Stories - A series of videos from the ELIXR project on how to effectively implement Just-in-Time Teaching in your courses.
  • Just-in-Time Teaching Web Site - This web site, created by the original JiTT developers, provides extensive background information on the development of JiTT, JiTT goals, resources, adopters, and impact.
  • JiTT Digital Library (more info) - This National Science Foundation-supported digital library for Just-in-Time Teaching pedagogical resources includes a collection of JiTT questions from a variety of disciplines, a wiki, a listing of people who use JiTT in their teaching, and access to a hosting service for first-time users of the JiTT pedagogy. On the JiTTDL hosting server you can post JiTT assignments for your course and retrieve student responses.

Using JiTT in Different Disciplines

Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Mathematics
  • The WebScience Project at IUPUI includes examples of JiTT exercises (Warm-Ups), Puzzles, and "Good Fors" in biology, physics, chemistry, and mathematics.
  • Using JiTT in Economics Web site - Provides information on how to get started with JiTT, including a step-by-step example.
  • Video on using JiTT in Economics (Quicktime Video 6.5MB Sep16 10) - Watch Dr. Mark Maier, Glendale Community College, explain how he uses Just-in-Time Teaching in his Principles of Economics courses.

History of Photography

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JiTT References - General (In Reverse Chronological Order)

Simkins, Scott and Maier, Mark (Eds.) (2010) Just in Time Teaching: Across the Disciplines, Across the Academy, Stylus Publishing.

Part I of this book provides a broad overview of JiTT, introducing the pedagogy and exploring various dimensions of its use without regard to discipline. Part II of the book demonstrates JiTT's remarkable cross-disciplinary impact with examples of applications in physics, biology, the geosciences, economics, history, and the humanities.

Patterson, E.T. (2005) Just-in-Time Teaching: Technology Transforming Learning – A Status Report, Invention and Impact: Building Excellence in Undergraduate STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) Education, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Just-in-Time Teaching was one of eight "successful pedagogies" at this 2004 NSF-AAAS-sponsored national conference highlighting recent innovations in undergraduate STEM education.

Rhem, James. (2005). Just-in-Time Teaching Tomorrow's Professor listserv posting, originally published in the National Teaching and Learning Forum Newsletter, Volume 14, Number 1.

Provides a brief, general overview of Just-in-Time Teaching and how it is used in undergraduate courses. See also earlier Tomorrow's Professor listserv postings on Just-in-Time Teaching from 1999 and 2000

Novak, G. & Middendorf, J. (2004) Just-in-Time Teaching. In: Volume IV - What Works, What Matters, What Lasts. Project Kaleidoscope.

This article from the Project Kaleidoscope web site describes JiTT, how it works, and the benefits of employing it in your classroom.

Novak, G.M & Patterson, E.T. (2000) The Best of Both Worlds: WWW Enhanced In-Class Instruction . Paper presented at IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education, May 24-27, 2000 Cancun, Mexico

This paper introduces Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT), a method that strives to implement a more active learning environment than lecture based classes.

Novak, Gregor M., Patterson, E. T., Gavrin, A. D., and Christian, W. (1999) Just-In-Time-Teaching: Blending Active Learning with Web Technology , Prentice Hall.

In this book, the initial developers explain what Just-in-Time Teaching is, its underlying goals and philosophies, and how to implement it. They also provide an extensive section of tested resource materials that can be used in introductory physics courses with the JiTT approach.

Novak, G.M & Patterson, E.T. (1998) Just-in-Time Teaching: Active Learner Pedagogy with WWW . Paper presented at IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education, May 27 -30, 1998 Cancun, Mexico

This paper presents information on Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) challenges, classrooms, web pages and parts, and assessment.

Creed, Tom. (1997) Extending the Classroom Walls Electronically. In: New Paradigms for College Teaching, eds. William E. Campbell and Karl A. Smith, 149-184. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Co.

This is an early development of the use of out-of-class assignments to inform in-class teaching, mediated through the use of web-based technology. While focused on the pedagogical benefits/challenges of "electronic communication", the author's "classroom example" describes what later would be called a JiTT exercise.

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Research on JiTT in the Disciplines

Multiple Disciplines (Biology, Chemistry, Physics)

Marrs, Kathleen A., Blake, R. E. and Gavrin, A. D. (2003) Web-Based Warm Up Exercises in Just-In-Time Teaching: Determining Students' Prior Knowledge and Misconceptions in Biology, Chemistry and Physics , Journal of College Science Teaching, 33 (1).
The authors show that JiTT exercises can be used to reveal students' prior knowledge and misconceptions in biology, chemistry, and physics.


Christensen, T. (2005). Changing the Learning Environment in Large General Education Astronomy Classes - The Gradual, Ongoing Transformation . Journal of College Science Teaching, 35, 3, 34.

The author describes the gradual, ongoing transformation of a large general education astronomy class via JiTT and in-class, cooperative, small group exercises.


Klionsky, D. J. (2002). Constructing Knowledge in the Lecture Hall - A Quiz-Based, Group-Learning Approach to Introductory Biology . Journal of College Science Teaching,31, 4, 246.

This article describes several changes the author made to his introductory biology class to improve his students' study habits and to develop a constructivist, problem-based learning environment.

Marrs, 2005, Assessment of JiTT on Student Learning - Powerpoint Presentation

The author documents improved student study habits, class preparation, and greater gains in content knowledge in a biology course using JiTT.

Marrs, K. A., & Chism, G. W. (April 2005). Just-in-Time Teaching for Food Science: Creating an Active Learner Classroom . Journal of Food Science Education,4,2, 27-34.

The authors describe how Just-in-Time Teaching has been used in biology education and how it can be used in food science education.

Marrs, Kathleen A., and Novak, Gregor M. (2004) Just-in-Time Teaching in Biology: Creating an Active Learner Classroom Using the Internet , Cell Biology Education, 3 (1), 49-61.

The authors describe the use of JiTT in teaching biology at the undergraduate and graduate levels, to both science majors and non-science majors. Assessment results indicate decreased attrition, improved student attitudes and study habits, increases in interactivity, and cognitive gains in classrooms using JiTT.


Slunt, K. M., & Giancarlo, L. C. (2004). In the Classroom - Student-Centered Learning: A Comparison of Two Different Methods of Instruction . Journal of Chemical Education,81,7, 985.

The authors compared the use of Concept Tests and JiTT in small lecture-based chemistry classes; they found that while both improved student learning the JiTT approach had a greater impact on student participation and performance than Concept Tests did.


Simkins, Scott and Maier, Mark. (2004) Using Just-in-Time Teaching Techniques in the Principles of Economics Course , Social Science Computer Review, 22 (4), pp. 444-456.

This article provides an overview of Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) pedagogy and the development, implementation, and assessment of JiTT pedagogy in teaching introductory, college-level economics courses. Includes regression-based assessment of JiTT on student learning outcomes, after accounting for a variety of student-level characteristics. [Pre-publication version]

Engineering/Environmental Science

Gavrin, A., Cashman, Eileen M., Eschenbach, Elizabeth A. (2005) Special Session - Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT): Using Online Exercises to Enhance Classroom Learning, 35th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference.
This paper describes the implementation of JiTT in a large class of introductory environmental engineering and environmental science students. Feedback from the students after one semester indicated that 93% thought the JiTT approach improved their learning.


Baer, E.M., Baer, E. H., Burn, H., Gilbert, L.A., Whittington, C. (2002) Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America Cordilleran Section, 98th Annual Meeting, May 13-15, 2002, Mathpatch - a Just in Time approach to teaching quantitative skills in introductory Courses .

This presentation outlines the implementation of Mathpatch, a one-credit course on quantitative skills that can be taken in conjunction with an introductory geology class. This course embodies the principals of Just-in-Time Teaching in that quantitative skills are learned in Mathpatch just-in-time to be used in the geology course.

de Caprariis, Pascal, Barman, Charles & Magee, Paula (2001) Monitoring the Benefits of Active Learning Exercises in Introductory Survey Courses: An Attempt to Improve the Education of Prospective Public School Teachers , The Journal of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning v. 1, n. 2, p. 13-23.

This article explains changes in student learning initiated by the implementation of active-learning exercises in a traditionally lecture-based geology classroom.

Grove, Karen. (2002) Using online homework assignments to implement the learning cycle in large courses for general education , Journal of Geoscience Education v50 n5 566-574.

This article describes online homework assignments named Virtual Voyages, that were designed to more actively engage students with course material in a large-sized, introductory geoscience course.

Guertin, L., Zappe, S., & Kim, H. (2007). Just-in-Time Teaching Exercises to Engage Students in an Introductory-Level Dinosaur Course . Journal of Science Education and Technology,16,6, 507-514

Students in an introductory-level general education geoscience course reported increased learning and engagement in a course with required weekly assignments.

Linneman, S., & Plake, T. (2006). Searching for the Difference: A Controlled Test of Just-in-Time Teaching for Large-Enrollment Introductory Geology Courses. Journal of Geoscience Education,54,1, 18.

Researchers at Western Washington Univerisity tested the effectiveness of Just-in-Time Teaching methods in introductory geology courses through an analysis of exam grades and student evaluations.


Gavrin, A.D. & Novak, G. (1999) What is Physics Good For? Motivating Students With Online Materials . Paper presented at IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education, May 6-8, 1999 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

This essay addresses motivation and science literacy by fostering inquisitiveness and understanding of various topics in physics, while simultaneously encouraging students to practice writing and use the Web as a resource.


Benedict, J. O., and Anderton, J. B. (2004) Applying the Just-in-Time Teaching Approach to Teaching Statistics , Teaching of Psychology, 31, 197-199.
The authors used Just-in-Time Teaching in their statistics class. When compared to an equivalent class based on content and textbook, the students in the JiTT class performed better on the final exam and expressed satisfaction with the approach.

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Complementary Pedagogies

Additional information about how to combine JiTT with other pedagogies.

Reading Questions

Henderson, C. & Rosenthal, A. (2006) [link https://web.archive.org/web/20180423093845/http://homepages.wmich.edu/~chenders/Publications/ReadingQuestions2005.pdf 'Reading Questions: Encouraging Students to Read the Text Before Coming to Class'], Journal of College Science Teaching, 35 (7), 46-50.

This article discusses how JiTT can be used to encourage students to read prior to class by having them develop "reading questions" related to the day's readings. The questions are used to identify student learning gaps, initiative faculty-student discussions, and inform in-class instruction.

Peer Instruction (PI)

Crouch, Catherine H. and Mazur, Eric (2001) Peer Instruction: Ten Years of Experience and Results. American Journal of Physics, 69, 970-977.

As the title suggests, the article provides an overview of the impact of Peer Instruction on teaching and learning in physics.

Fagen, Adam P., Crouch, Catherine H., and Mazur, Eric (2002) Peer Instruction: Results from a Range of Classrooms, Physics Teacher, 40, 206-209.

This article shows that Peer Instruction can be used in a variety of educational environments.

Mazur, Eric., Peer Instruction: A User Manual. Prentice-Hall, 1996.

The definitive resource on getting started with Peer Instruction, from the person who made this pedagogical practice so well known.

Redish, Edward F. Chapter 7: Lecture-Based Methods. Teaching Physics with the Physics Suite. John Wiley and Sons.

The author discusses the use of JiTT in conjunction with Peer Instruction as a way to increase active learning in lecture-based courses.

University of Maryland Physics Education Research Group, The Physics Suite. Peer Instruction Problems.

A library of Peer Instruction problems, which can also be used as the basis for JiTT exercises.

Watkins, Jessica and Mazur, Eric. Just-in-Time Teaching and Peer Instruction. In Simkins, Scott and Maier, Mark (Eds.) (2010) Just in Time Teaching: Across the Disciplines, and Across the Academy, Stylus Publishing.

The authors provide a comprehensive overview about how to combine JiTT and Peer Instruction and provide evidence that adding JiTT to Peer Instruction increases student learning even more than Peer Instruction alone.

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JiTT History and Development

Project Kaleidoscope Just-in-Time Teaching: Interview with a Pioneer (more info)

This is the transcript of a Project Kaleidoscope interview with Gregor Novak. Discussion topics include how JiTT was developed and how JiTT uses web-based exercises to foster better personal interaction between students and faculty.

Rozycki, William (1999) Just-in-Time Teaching and its Development , Research and Creative Activity v 22, n1

This article discusses the evolution of Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT), a method developed by Gregor Novak and colleagues that incorporates interactive lectures and collaborative recitation.

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A Teaching and Learning Sampler

Angelo and Cross (1993) Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers (Second Edition) Jossey-Bass Publishers: San Francisco

This book by Thomas Angelo and K. Patricia Cross provides a practical guide to help faculty develop a better understanding of the learning process in their own classrooms and assess the impact of their teaching upon it. The authors offer detailed how-to advice on classroom assessment.

Bransford, John; Brown, Ann L. and Cocking, Rodney R. (Editors). (2000) How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition , National Research Council (U. S.) Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice, National Academies Press.

This summary of educational research stresses that students of all ages 1) come to school with preconceptions about the subjects they are learning that, if not engaged, will interfere with learning, 2) need deep rather than broad knowledge of a subject, and 3) learn differently as novices than they do as intermediate learners becoming experts.

Chickering, Arthur W. and Zelda F. Gamson. (1987). Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. AAHE Bulletin March.

This is a classic reference on effective teaching practices, based on a summary of educational research through the mid-1980s.
Mazur, E., Fagen, A., Crouch, C., & Callan, J. (2004). Classroom demonstrations: Learning tools or entertainment?. Am. J. Phys., 72(6), 835-838.
The authors show that students who predict the outcome of a demonstration before seeing it display significantly greater understanding than students who passively observe the demonstration.

Misconceptions as Barriers to Understanding Science (1997). In Science Teaching Reconsidered: A Handbook. National Academies Press, Washington, DC.

Topics covered include the role of misconceptions in the learning process, descriptions and examples of some common misconceptions in science, and methods used to identify and break down misconceptions.
Redish, Edward F. (2003) Teaching Physics with the Physics Suite. Wiley.
This book provides a brief introduction to the implications of Physics Education Research for physics instruction and can be used as a handbook for improving physics teaching. The author reviews the cognitive basis for the current instructional consensus in PER and discusses a dozen popular active-engagement teaching methods and many various methods and tools to improve physics instruction.

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