Part 1.2 Setting overarching goals
In this section of the tutorial, we will ask you to focus on answering the question, "What do I want my students to be able to do when they are done with my course?" If this question is answered thoughtfully and realistically, the goals that you have set for your students will provide a road map for developing an innovative course that helps students achieve those goals. Assessment, sometimes viewed as a real bugbear, falls out naturally from the desire to determine whether students have met the goals.
Start by downloading the worksheet (Microsoft Word 70kB May23 05) that goes with this part, and use it as you work through the sections below.
Part 1.2.1 Background on overarching goals
Teaching is commonly viewed as being teacher-centered:
- Professors, after all, profess.
- Student course evaluations reinforce a teacher-centered view because they commonly ask students about the professor, rather than about the student's learning experience.
- Even we think about courses as being opportunities for us to do something for students. Think about how often you have heard someone say "I want to show my students that...", or " I want to teach my students about...", or "I want to make sure that my students are exposed to...".
It dawned on me about two weeks into the first year that it was not teaching that was taking place in the classroom, but learning."
Pop star Sting, reflecting upon his early career as a teacher (Shaping the Future; NSF publication 96-139)
- Students must do their own learning; we can't do the learning for our students.
- Good teaching should be about developing courses where the focus is on student learning, not on teacher presentation.
- We will design more effective courses if we focus on setting goals for the students, rather than for the faculty member.
What, exactly, do we mean by the term goals?
The education world has a whole host of terms such as goals, objectives, outcomes, learning goals, learning outcomes, and so on. Many college and university faculty are unclear on the specific definitions of these terms and on the distinctions among them. Others have encountered them defined differently in different places. Our workshop participants have, in general, found it counterproductive to worry about specific definitions and distinctions.
- We decided many years ago at our workshops to collapse goals, objectives, and outcomes into one standard English term "goals". We will follow the same practice in this tutorial.
- For this tutorial, "goals" will be concrete and measurable (e.g., "My goal in life is to make a million dollars," or "My goal next year is to make the Olympic sock wrestling team.").
- If this offends you, please feel free to mentally distinguish among goals, objectives, and outcomes when appropriate. We would say, though, that when we have presented this simplified usage at workshops, we have been resoundingly cheered!!
- We will also avoid using the word "learning" as an adjective.
- A friend of ours (a Bostonian) gave her husband, Paul (a Long Islander) a grocery list that included the item "brown bread".
- Paul went to the bakery department and asked for brown bread. The baker was completely puzzled. After some discussion and consultation of the list, the light dawned, and the baker said, "Oh! You want brown bread!", which every New Englander knows comes in a can and can be found on the shelf near the baked beans.
- The same confusion that results from incorrect emphasis plagues the use of the word "learning". Most scientists with little familiarity with the education literature would read the following sentence with an emphasis on the word "research", not on the word "learning": "I am in the middle of learning research techniques in geochemistry." In this case, "to learn" is used in the present indicative tense.
- In the following sentence written by someone familiar with the education literature, however, the emphasis is on the word "learning", used as an adjective : "I am finding out more about learning research in the geosciences." The average science faculty member is not accustomed to seeing "learning" as an adjective and stumbles when trying to read this sentence by putting emphasis on "research" rather than on "learning".
- Net result—we will avoid using "learning" as an adjective in this tutorial.
The difference that setting student-focused, overarching goals makesLet's think about a course in environmental geology:
- Teacher-focused view: provide students with an introduction to the geology of environmental issues and geologic hazards.
- Student-focused view: enable students to assess the hazard potential of an area and take that into account when choosing a piece of property for purchase OR evaluate the validity of a news report related to the environment OR prepare a scientifically sound argument on a local environmental issue to present at a town forum or in a town newspaper?
Thinking about this environmental geology course as a survey course points us inevitably down the path of presenting material to students, exposing students to a series of examples, and so forth. Thinking about the course as enabling students to do something in the future points us down a very different path, one where we would need to design a course that prepares students to do something significanton their own after the course is over. What a different course this would be!
Before going on, take the time to browse several of the additional examples below of the difference that thinking about a course in student-focused terms makes. We have deliberately used examples from a variety of fields, because it's commonly easier to see the point in a field you're not quite so close to:
- Teacher-focused goal: provide survey of history from a particular time period
- Student-focused goals: enable students to evaluate an unfamiliar event in its historical context OR reconstruct an unfamiliar historical event from different viewpoints or a familiar historical event from a new viewpoint OR seek out and evaluate information about an unfamiliar historical event.
- Teacher-focused goal: provide survey of art from a particular period.
- Student-focused goals: enable students to go to an art museum and evaluate the technique of an unfamiliar work of art OR evaluate an unfamiliar work in its historical context OR evaluate a work in the context of a particular artistic genre, school, or style.
- Teacher-focused goal: provide instruction and practice in particular techniques (statistics, calculus, differential equations)
- Student-focused goals: enable students to evaluate evaluate statistical claims in the popular press/advertising OR analyze applications of calculus in unfamiliar situations OR solve unfamiliar real-world problems in science/engineering.
- Teacher-focused goal: provide survey of results of research on learning
- Student-focused goals: enable students to design classroom activities for students that are consistent with educational theory and the science of learning.
The common denominator in all of the examples above is that the student-focused goals articulate what someone in the profession does as a result of being in that profession. And one very useful way to begin to approach setting student-focused goals is to think about what sorts of things you do simply because you are a professional in your discipline.
Suppose, for example, that you were a geoscientist.
- Geoscientists typically don't identify perfect mineral samples in little white boxes. Rather, geoscientists use data from rocks and minerals to help them reconstruct some aspect of the Earth's past.
- Geoscientists typically don't just read an account of what happened in the geologic past. Rather, they collect data to work out the geologic history of an area and use the past to help predict the geologic future.
- Geoscientists use their understanding of geologic processes in decisions that affect their daily lives, whether it has to do with house purchase, resource utilization, local waste disposal issues, school curriculum, or many other issues.
- Historians interpret historical accounts in light of the source of information.
- Art historians assess works of art, rather than merely deciding whether they like a piece or not.
- Many physicists predict outcomes based on calculations from first principles.
- The father of one of us (Tewksbury) decided one summer that he and his young grandson would make a trebuchet (a type of medieval catapult). He planned out the trebuchet by calculating everything from first principles. The trebuchet worked perfectly
- This illustrates precisely the difference between the approach to problems that a physicist might take and one that most others would take (namely going to the Internet and looking for plans). Recognizing this way of thinking is important in setting goals for a course in the discipline.
- At one of our multidisciplinary workshops, we asked everyone to think about what they do as professionals. One of the participants, a sculptor, had an epiphany as he thought through the answer. He realized that, when he did is own work in sculpture, he spent a lot of time searching for ideas and inspiration by looking through books, Internet sites, etc., working out for himself what he was trying to accomplish, and finally performing a serious critical evaluation of the extent to which he had achieved what he had set out to accomplish.
- As he articulated this for himself, he realized that he had never explained this process to his students nor asked them to do anything like it. That one ah ha! insight would transform his next sculpture course.
Task 1.2a: So, what do you do?
Your course should enable your students, at the appropriate level, to do what you do in your discipline, not just expose them to what you know. In the context of your general course topic, what do you do simply because you are a professional in your discipline? What does "analyze", "evaluate", etc. involve? Alternatively, what is unique about your world view or the view of your discipline?? Before proceeding further with the tutorial, answer this question on the worksheet that you downloaded at the start of this section.
Part 1.2.2 Setting the overarching goals for your course
So far, we have:
- emphasized the importance of focusing on student-centered, rather than teacher-centered goals, and
- given some thought to what you do in your discipline simply because you are a professional.
Now, it is time to set overarching goals for your own course by answering the question, "What do I want my students to be able to do when they are done with my course?" The answer is crucial to the design process, because the course must be designed to bring students to the point where they are good at doing whatever it is on their own.
What kinds of things might you want students to be able to do at the end of your course?
Lower order thinking skills goals are those that involve knowledge, comprehension, and some types of application.
- Verbs that reflect tasks involving lower order thinking skills goals include list, explain, calculate, identify, describe, recognize, summarize, discuss, define, know about, recall, paraphrase, and locate.
- Here are some examples of goals involving lower order thinking skills. At the end of the course, I want my students to be able to:
- list the periods of the geologic time scale.
- recognize erosional and depositional glacial landforms on a topographic map.
- cite examples of poor land use practice in areas of geologic hazards.
- explain how geologists use radioactive decay of elements to determine the ages of rock.
- identify common rocks and minerals
- know where various types of plate boundaries are in the world.
- calculate plate spreading rates
- describe the processes that occur when rocks are deformed.
- recognize examples of pointilist art
- label a time line with the dates of major events leading up to World War I
- compare and contrast transcendentalism and existentialism
- describe how the Doppler shift provides information about moving objects, and give an illustrative example.
- explain how stem cells form and what applications might be developed.
Alternatively, you might set goals that involve higher order thinking skills.
Higher order thinking skills goals are those that involve analysis, synthesis, evaluation, and some types of application.
- Verbs that reflect tasks involving higher order thinking skills goals include derive, predict, analyze, design, interpret, synthesize, formulate, plan, correlate, evaluate, create, critique and adapt.
- Here are some examples of goals involving higher order thinking skills. At the end of the course, I want my students to be able to:
- interpret unfamiliar geologic maps and construct cross sections.
- analyze the modern geologic processes in an unfamiliar area and assess potential hazards to humans (which is different from recalling those covered in class).
- research information on the geology of an area and present it to an appropriate audience (students, town council, family, children, friends).
- use data from recent Mars missions (Mars Express, Mars Exploration Rovers, and MOC and THEMIS images from the past year) to re-evaluate pre-2004 hypotheses about Mars geologic processes and geologic history/evolution.
- collect field data and make observations of rocks and thin sections to evaluate the conditions of deformation and the deformation mechanisms responsible for structures and fabrics in a sequence of rocks.
- Given an outcrop, 1D/2D section, correlation diagram, or other representation of a stratigraphic section, interpret the depositional history of the sequence and develop a sound hypothesis about the relative importance of sediment supply, subsidence, and/or base level in creating the sequence.
- predict the weather given appropriate meteorological data.
- help elementary school students identify rocks that they bring to class and help them learn how to make their own interpretations.
- access and analyze climate and paleoclimate data sets in various formats (tabulated, graphical, simple strat. column, satellite photo, etc.) and make logical inferences about climate and environmental change from the data.
- Given a tectonic setting, predict what types of sedimentary processes and depositional environments would result and what their stratigraphic signatures would be.
- predict potential impacts of geologic events on society and predict potential impacts of human activities on the Earth.
- develop and test age-appropriate lesson plans for students in ____.
- make field observations, ask questions, collect data, & make interpretations about ______
- frame a hypothesis and formulate a research plan in ___.
- collect and analyze data for ____
- design a computer or analog model of a geologic process
- analyze and unfamiliar epidemic (which is different from recalling those analyzed in class)
- design and carry out a project involving collection, analysis, and synthesis of data to solve a complex, open-ended problem.
- make an informed decision about a controversial issue, other than those covered in class, involving a geologic topic.
- evaluate the historical context of an unfamiliar event.
- predict the outcome of ____
- find and evaluate information/data on _____
What kind of goals will we ask you to set for your course in this tutorial?
We will ask you to set student-focused goals involving higher order thinking skills.
- Why? Goals involving higher order thinking skills goals have imbedded in them goals involving lower order thinking skills.
- "I want students to be able to evaluate an unfamiliar area for geologic hazards. "
- To successfully accomplish this goal, a student must be able to do many lower order thinking skills tasks, including recognizing, classifying, defining, describing, and explaining.
- Contrast the goal above with "I want students to know about geologic hazards."
- A student could meet this goal by doing very little higher order thinking by demonstrating knowledge in the form of recalling, describing, identifying, etc. On the other hand, a student who could satisfy the goal as stated in the first example (..evalute an area for geologic hazards) would not only demonstrate his/her knowledge but higher order thinking skills as well.
- Why? A measurable outcome is a specific task that students can do that make it clear that they have accomplished the course goal(s). It is a whole lot easier to design the course that has goals with measurable outcomes.
- "I want students to be able to interpret unfamiliar tectonic settings based on information on physiography, seismicity, and volcanic activity."
- One can easily imagine designing a course that could provide students enough background and practice that they could be successful in this goal.
- "I want students to be able to understand plate tectonics."
- Besides the difficulty in defining a clear measurement for "understanding", the path to designing a course that will help students achieve this goal is not nearly as clear as it is in the previous example.
- Why? Abstract goals are laudable but are very difficult to assess directly and are difficult to translate into practical course design. Here are several abstract goals and their drawbacks:
- "I want students to appreciate the complexity of Earth systems."
- Ummm, great, but how will you tell directly whether students can "appreciate complexity"??
- "I want students to think like scientists."
- Sure, don't we all! But what does it really mean? In terms of designing a course, it would be more useful to decide what you think the statement means for your discipline and to write the goal in a way that provides a clear path to the kind of practice that students need in order to achieve the goal.
Task 1.2b: Practice in critical evaluation of overarching goals
Work through the goals practice page before proceeding further with the tutorial. Use the worksheet that you downloaded at the beginning of this tutorial section to record your evaluation of each goal before peeking at our evaluation of each.
Task 1.2c: Set one to three overarching goals for your course
Now, it's time to write overarching goals for your course. What do you want your students to be able to do when they are done with your course? Several months down the road? Next year? Five years from now? Keep the following in mind:
- Factor in context. Who are your students, and what do they need? Remember what you wrote on course context for the tasks in Part 1.1 of this tutorial!
- Factor in what you do as a professional. Remember the list that you made in Task 1.2b above!
- Set student-focused goals
- Phrase your goals as Students will be able to... or I want students to be able to....
- Avoid phrases such as I want to expose students to... or I want to show students that.... Don't fall into the trap of writing a goal that says I want students to be able to be exposed to....!
- Set goals involving higher order thinking skills
- Use verbs that signal higher order thinking skills, such as derive, predict, analyze, design, interpret, synthesize, formulate, plan, correlate, evaluate, create, critique and adapt.
- Avoid verbs that signal lower order thinking skills, such as list, explain, calculate, identify, describe, recognize, summarize, discuss, define, recall, paraphrase, know about, and locate.
- Set goals that are concrete, have measurable outcomes, and provide clear direction for course design.
- Avoid verbs such as understand, appreciate, value.
- Remember that there is no one right set of overarching goals for a course. Different instructors with different students will likely have different goals or phrase goals differently even if the course is on the same topic.
If you would like to view sample goals in addition to the ones in this part of the tutorial, visit the Cutting Edge Goals/Syllabus Data Base where you will find a collection of examples.
Once you have written the overarching goals, Go to Part 1.3 Setting Ancillary Skills goals.
©2005 On-line Course Design Tutorial developed by Dr. Barbara J. Tewksbury (Hamilton College) and Dr. R. Heather Macdonald (College of William and Mary) as part of the program On the Cutting Edge, funded by NSF grant DUE-0127310.