Mineralogy, Petrology, and Geochemistry Across the Curriculum:
Teaching Clay Mineralogy
A compilation by David Mogk, Dept. of Earth Sciences, Montana State University
Why is Clay Mineralogy Interesting and Important for Interpreting Earth and for Society?
This collection of teaching activities on clay mineralogy has been developed to complement the 46th Annual Meeting of the Clay Minerals Society which will be convened June 5-11, 2009 in Billings, Montana. This collection is developed in collaboration with the On the Cutting Edge program for faculty development in the geosciences.
The purpose of this collection is to provide instructional resources about clay mineralogy that can be used across the curriculum. In addition to traditional mineralogy courses, the following activities can also be used in a range of courses such as Environmental Geology, Sedimentary Geology, Structural Geology, Economic Geology and many more!
Teaching Clay Science WorkbookTeaching Clay Science, CMS Workshop Lectures, Volume 11, Audrey C. Rule and Stephen Guggenheim, Editors. Published by The Clay Minerals Society, 2002, 223 pages. Purchase this volume from the Clay Minerals Society. Visit the Table of Contents (Acrobat (PDF) 189kB Feb26 09) for this volume.
Characterization of Clay Minerals
- Introduction to the Properties of Clay Minerals -- Stephen Guggenheim, University of Illinois at Chicago
- Better Living Through Minerals: X-Ray Diffraction of Household Products -- Barb Dutrow , Louisiana State University
- X-ray Analysis of Unknown Minerals -- Dexter Perkins, University of North Dakota
- X-ray Analysis of Sand -- Dexter Perkins, University of North Dakota
- Sedimentary and Related Minerals -- Dexter Perkins, University of North Dakota
Clay Mineralogy and Structural Geology
- Conjugate Fractures Form in Clay -- Paul Kelso, Lake Superior State University
Clay Mineralogy and Sedimentary Geology
- Mudcracks -- Diane M. Burns, Eastern Illinois University, from the "Stratigraphic Up Tutorial"
Clay Mineralogy and Geohydrology
- Analysis of Clay Layer Compression -- Charlie Fitts, University of Southern Maine
Clay Minerals and Engineering Geology
- Weathering of Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rocks in a Semi-Arid Climate - An Engineering Application of Petrology -- Wendy J. Harrison and Richard F. Wendlandt, Colorado School of Mines
Clay Minerals and Planetary and Meteoric Materials
Please contribute activities
Tutorials on Mineralogical Analytical Instruments and Techniques
- Geochemical Instrumentation and Analysis -- A series of "primers" on geochemical analytical techniques including fundamental principles, descriptions of instruments, typical applications, strengths and limitations, sample collection and preparation, results, data presentation, interpretation, as well as links to the literature and other on-line resources for users to pursue a deeper understanding of these topics. Instruments featured include X-ray diffraction, electron beam (SEM, WDS, EDS, EMPA, CL, BSE, EBSD), and mass spectrometry (TIMS, ICPMS, gas source). The goal is to help novices (e.g. students, or scientists working out of their field) to become critical consumers and producers of data using the arsenal of mineralogical, petrological and geochemical analytical techniques available.
- Single Crystal X-ray Diffraction -- Christine M. Clark, Eastern Michigan University and Barbara L. Dutrow, Louisiana State University
- X-ray Powder Diffractions (XRD) -- Barbara L. Dutrow, Louisiana State University and Christine M. Clark, Eastern Michigan University
- Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) -- Susan Swapp, University of Wyoming
- Electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) -- John Goodge, University of Minnesota-Duluth
- Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) -- John Goodge, University of Minnesota-Duluth
- Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (WDS) -- Darrell Henry, Louisiana State University and John Goodge, University of Minnesota-Duluth
- Back-Scattered Electron Detector (BSE) -- John Goodge, University of Minnesota-Duluth
- X-ray Elemental Mapping -- John Goodge, University of Minnesota-Duluth
- Scanning Electron Microscopy - Cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) -- Darrell Henry, Louisiana State University
- Optical Cathodoluminescence (Optical-CL) -- Darrell Henry, Louisiana State University
- Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) -- Susan Swapp, Univeristy of Wyoming
- Mossbauer Spectroscopy -- M. Darby Dyar, Mount Holyoke College
Resources on Chemical Weathering and Soil Formation
- Chemical Weathering Visualizations -- compiled by Mark Francek, Teaching Geoscience with Visualizations Collection
- Soil Horizons -- compiled by Mark Francek, Teaching Geoscience with Visualizations Collection
- Weathering and Clay Evolution -- Soil Science Department, North Carolina State University (animations show how primary minerals weather to 2:1 clays, 1:1 clays, and aluminum and iron oxides over time.
- Soil Texture and Classification -- Soil Science Department, North Carolina State University
- Chemical Weathering of Feldspar to Clay -- Jennifer Loomis, Center for Earth and Space Science Education at TERC
References to Support Teaching About Clay Mineralogy
Articles About Teaching Clay Mineralogy
- Hluchy, M.M., 1999, The Value of Teaching X-ray Techniques and Clay Mineralogy to Undergraduates, Jour. Geoscience Education, v. 47, p. 236-240.
- A Powerpoint presentation on use of XRD in Soil Science (PowerPoint 1.6MB Sep7 07) by Melody Bergeron, Image and Chemical Analysis Laboratory at Montana State University.
- Brady, John B., and Boardman, Shelby J., 1995, Introducing Mineralogy Students to X-ray Diffraction Through Optical Diffraction Experiments Using Lasers. Jour. Geol. Education, v. 43 #5, 471-476.
- Brady, John B., Newton, Robert M., and Boardman, Shelby J., 1995, New Uses for Powder X-ray Diffraction Experiments in the Undergraduate Curriculum. Jour. Geol. Education, v. 43 #5, 466-470.
Articles About Clay Mineralogy That can be Used for Class Discussions, Projects, Individual or Small-Group Activities...Please Contribute Articles of Interest
Books and Articles on How to Study Clay Minerals
- Bish, DL and Post, JE, editors. 1989. Modern Powder Diffraction. Reviews in Mineralogy, v. 20. Mineralogical Society of America.
- Klug, H. P., and L. E. Alexander. 1974. X-ray diffraction procedures for polycrystalline and amorphous materials. 2nd ed. Wiley, New York.
- Moore, D. M. and R. C. Reynolds, Jr. 1997. X-Ray diffraction and the identification and analysis of clay minerals. 2nd Ed. Oxford University Press, New York.
- A Laboratory Manual for X-Ray Powder Diffraction -- L.J. Poppe, V.F. Paskevich, J.C. Hathaway, and D.S. Blackwood, USGS Open File Report 01-041; Includes chapters on an XRD primer, Preparatory and Interpretive Procedures, a review of the types of clay minerals, and a clay mineral identification flow diagram