Unit 3: Static GPS/GNSS Methods
These materials have been reviewed for their alignment with the Next Generation Science Standards as detailed below. Visit InTeGrate and the NGSS to learn more.
OverviewStudents plan and conduct a geodetic survey and analyze the resulting time series.
Science and Engineering Practices
Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking: Use mathematical, computational, and/or algorithmic representations of phenomena or design solutions to describe and/or support claims and/or explanations. HS-P5.2:
Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking: Apply techniques of algebra and functions to represent and solve scientific and engineering problems. HS-P5.3:
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations: Plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design: decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time), and refine the design accordingly. HS-P3.2:
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations: Plan an investigation or test a design individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence as part of building and revising models, supporting explanations for phenomena, or testing solutions to problems. Consider possible confounding variables or effects and evaluate the investigation’s design to ensure variables are controlled. HS-P3.1:
Developing and Using Models: Develop and/or use a model (including mathematical and computational) to generate data to support explanations, predict phenomena, analyze systems, and/or solve problems. HS-P2.6:
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions: Construct and revise an explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources (including students’ own investigations, models, theories, simulations, peer review) and the assumption that theories and laws that describe the natural world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future. HS-P6.2:
Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Consider limitations of data analysis (e.g., measurement error, sample selection) when analyzing and interpreting data HS-P4.3:
Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Apply concepts of statistics and probability (including determining function fits to data, slope, intercept, and correlation coefficient for linear fits) to scientific and engineering questions and problems, using digital tools when feasible. HS-P4.2:
Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Analyze data using tools, technologies, and/or models (e.g., computational, mathematical) in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims or determine an optimal design solution. HS-P4.1:
Cross Cutting Concepts
Systems and System Models: When investigating or describing a system, the boundaries and initial conditions of the system need to be defined and their inputs and outputs analyzed and described using models. HS-C4.2:
Stability and Change: Change and rates of change can be quantified and modeled over very short or very long periods of time. Some system changes are irreversible. HS-C7.2:
Patterns: Empirical evidence is needed to identify patterns. HS-C1.5:
Disciplinary Core Ideas
Developing Possible Solutions: Both physical models and computers can be used in various ways to aid in the engineering design process. Computers are useful for a variety of purposes, such as running simulations to test different ways of solving a problem or to see which one is most efficient or economical; and in making a persuasive presentation to a client about how a given design will meet his or her needs. HS-ETS1.B2:
This material was developed and reviewed through the GETSI curricular materials development process. This rigorous, structured process includes:
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This activity was selected for the On the Cutting Edge Reviewed Teaching Collection
This activity has received positive reviews in a peer review process involving five review categories. The five categories included in the process are
- Scientific Accuracy
- Alignment of Learning Goals, Activities, and Assessments
- Pedagogic Effectiveness
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For more information about the peer review process itself, please see http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/review.html.
This page first made public: Apr 24, 2018
Unit 3 Learning Outcomes
- Students are able to list the components of a static system, describe their function, and discuss how they integrate into the system as a whole
- Students are able to design, conduct, and process results for a simple survey.
- Students are able to analyze and interpret static GNSS station positions.
- Students can apply findings from static GNSS observations to an issue important to society.
Supports Module Goals 1-3. Earth Science Big Ideas ESBI-1: Earth scientists use repeatable observations and testable ideas to understand and explain our planet; ESBI-4: Earth is continuously changing; ESBI-7: Humans depend on Earth for resources; and ESBI-8: Natural hazards pose risks to humans. (links open in new windows)
Unit 3 Teaching Objectives
- Cognitive: Teach students to make decisions on balancing numerous competing factors in designing the optimal static GNSS survey for a given location or problem.
- Behavioral: Promote students' ability to assemble and operate a static GNSS antenna, receiver, and related equipment and make supporting field observations.
- Affective: Share with students the value of the high-accuracy positioning possible with static systems, giving examples such as measuring earthquakes, volcanic inflation, groundwater depletion, landslide dynamics, or tectonic deformation.
Context for Use
This unit is appropriate for upper division geoscience, earth science, geography or civil/environmental engineering students who have already been introduced to basic concepts such as plate tectonics, mass movements, and hydrology. Students should also have a first-order familiarity with uncertainty, precision, and accuracy and the science behind GNSS systems (Unit 1: GPS/GNSS Fundamentals). It is not necessary to have completed any parts of Unit 2: Kinematic GPS/GNSS Methods in order to teach Unit 3. The unit is appropriate for academic year courses with field components or a summer field camp.
This unit builds upon Unit 1's fundamentals (such as GNSS systems, precision, accuracy and uncertainty) and assumes that users have either completed Unit 1 or had previous training in GNSS concepts and terminology. This unit is designed for a mixed classroom/field setting. However, we encourage that the initial lecture be followed by a field experience with hands-on demonstration of static GNSS equipment or a visit to a PBO or other permanent static GPS site. Students should use printed handouts for note taking, either directly or as a guide for personal field books.
The final portion of the unit requires computer access with GNSS processing software appropriate to the brand of hardware used. An internet connection is not mandatory, but it will require additional preparatory work if a connection is not available. This unit requires that either pre-processed data is available for students (from a previous year or occupation, for example) or that additional time is accounted for processing positional data. OPUS is currently the best possible solution for a rapid processing, although it is not the best in terms of absolute accuracy (a few centimeters at best). Using OPUS typically requires a 24-hour period between acquiring data and submitting it for processing. This means the course can be ideal for interleaving other activities or academic semester courses where this time is not an issue. In a field camp setting, it may be easiest to have prepared or pre-processed results or the ability to return to the GNSS project after a few days.
Description and Teaching Materials
This unit begins with an introduction to static survey systems through a lecture and introduction to the Static GPS/GNSS Survey Methods Manual. The lecture is presented with a PowerPoint that illustrates static surveys, their applications and advantages, a brief processing overview, and a review of interpreting position results. During or after the lecture, students should be presented with the Static GPS/GNSS Survey Methods Manual. This manual introduces students to the various types of static surveys, equipment, and methods for a successful survey. The methods include survey design, execution, and processing. It is not critical to read the manual in its entirety but for students to understand the basic components of a system and the general steps for a successful survey. The lecture and manual introduction should take at most one hour. Following the lecture and the introduction to the manual, a short field component should introduce students to the static GNSS hardware either through a hands-on demonstration of setting up a unit over a benchmark or a visit to a permanent, continuous station like a PBO site. The field component should also require ~1 hour.
After being introduced to the manual, students should be given the 'Introduction to Time Series' assignment. This assignment will correlate with the last part of the lecture and ask students to interpret static GNSS data from continuously operating and campaign sites. Though there are already sites selected for the assignment, you can modify this to address a different field area. The assignment solidifies the concept of position velocities, vectors, and interpretation of events in a time series. Students will need a small ruler, pencil, and possibly a calculator for the assignment. The assignment should take students 1 to 1.5 hours.
2) Simple Rapid-Static Survey
Students should be provided with the necessary equipment and take part in an example static survey including setting up equipment, collecting metadata, surveying the location, processing data, and reading results. Students should be guided through the Static GPS/GNSS Survey Methods Manual as the instructor demonstrates proper set up and data collection. Students should then get hands-on experience with the equipment and survey a location. They will survey one or more locations and fill out thorough field notes about both the field site (example field notebook (Acrobat (PDF) 1.4MB Dec2 16)) and the monument (monument visit logsheet).
It is advantageous here to have several pieces of equipment so that no more than 4 or 5 students are working at a single receiver. Students can rotate jobs between writing notes, taking measurements, and operating the receiver. Typically, a rapid-static survey (occupation of at least 15 minutes to 2 hours) will be ideal, unless this activity can be alternated or interleaved with another activity. When the survey is complete, students should then be shown how to retrieve RINEX data files from the receivers and process them through an appropriate program. For those using OPUS there are instructions in both the Static GPS/GNSS Survey Methods Manual and the stand-alone Static GPS/GNSS Data Processing with OPUS Manual. If there is access to an internet connection, students can process through OPUS directly; if not, pre-processed results are needed. The survey, processing and interpretation should take ~3 hours, not including the OPUS wait time.
Note: OPUS requires approximately 24 hours before positional corrections are available for a given time period. That means you will need to account for this time delay with another activity. If you are teaching Kinematic GNSS as well, a static survey can be set up first and allowed to run while the other unit is taught. Once data is submitted to OPUS for processing, results are typically returned within 1 or 2 hours. Be prepared with an alternative data set if OPUS fails to return a corrected position.
- Unit 3 Static GNSS Lecture (PowerPoint 2007 (.pptx) 13.4MB Apr15 18)
- Presentation: basics of static GNSS
- Unit 3 Introduction to GNSS Time Series - Borah Fault, Idaho (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 4.2MB Apr24 18)
Unit 3 Introduction to GNSS Time Series - Borah Fault, Idaho PDF (Acrobat (PDF) 3.8MB Apr24 18)
Unit 3 Introduction to GNSS Time Series - Borah Fault, Idaho - Answer Key -- private instructor-only file
- Student exercise: students gain familiarity with time-series of GNSS positions, learn to interpret signals and noise, and apply this interpretation to a scientific question.
- Alternative: Unit 3 Introduction to GNSS Time Series - Cook Inlet, AK (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 2.1MB Apr24 18)
Unit 3 Introduction to GNSS Time Series - Cook Inlet, AK PDF (Acrobat (PDF) 2.6MB Apr24 18)
Unit 3 Introduction to GNSS Time Series - Cook Inlet, AK - Answer Key -- private instructor-only file
- Unit 3 Introduction to Static GNSS Surveys Student Exercise (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 213kB Apr16 18)
Unit 3 Introduction to Static GNSS Surveys Student Exercise PDF (Acrobat (PDF) 435kB Apr16 18)
- Student exercise: students complete an introductory static survey. Students get hands-on time with equipment to become familiar with its use before applying skills in the summative assessment.
- Unit 3 Summative Assignment Leveling Line Analysis with Static GNSS (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 215kB Apr18 18)
Unit 3 Summative Assignment Leveling Line Analysis with Static GNSS PDF (Acrobat (PDF) 463kB Apr18 18)
- Summative assignment: students design and conduct a GNSS survey that adds new data to a previous static occupation. Students then interpret their results in light of historical data.
- Static GPS/GNSS Survey Methods Manual (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 9.1MB Aug15 18)
Static GPS/GNSS Survey Methods Manual PDF (Acrobat (PDF) 8.2MB Aug15 18)
- Guide for setting up, executing, and processing data a static GNSS survey
- Static GPS/GNSS Data Processing with OPUS Manual (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 356kB Apr8 18)
Static GPS/GNSS Data Processing with OPUS Manual PDF (Acrobat (PDF) 563kB Apr8 18)
- Guide for post-processing static occupations with the online tool OPUS
- UNAVCO GPS/GNSS Campaign Handbook (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 2.6MB Apr7 18)
UNAVCO GPS/GNSS Campaign Handbook PDF (Acrobat (PDF) 2.4MB Apr7 18)
- An initial guide for GNSS surveys. This covers the merits of various campaign types, data collection and processing, physical equipment setups, and monument logs. This can be given to students in the introduction so that they understand the depth of the material, take notes as necessary, and reference it when necessary.This was used as the basis for the "Static GPS/GNSS Survey Methods Manual" but contains additional information as well.
- TEQC tips for getting started (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 160kB May14 18)
TEQC tips for getting started PDF (Acrobat (PDF) 122kB May14 18)
- TEQC is command-line software that can be used to Translate, Edit, and Quality Check GNSS data.
- Field Notebook Example (Acrobat (PDF) 1.4MB Dec2 16)
- Example field book layout suggested for students while taking notes for a GNSS survey.
- Monument Visit Logsheet
- It is critically important to accurately fill out a monument logsheet in order to have the information needed during processing.
Teaching Notes and Tips
The time-series exercise is best employed if it uses examples from local areas or sites that are significant for the survey students will complete later. For example, the original assignment is written for three stations distributed across the Borah Peak Fault, the feature that students would then survey a leveling line across. This allowed students to gain a tectonic motion perspective for the leveling line data they were acquiring and familiarized them with the relative merits of the two different approaches to a GNSS survey.
If you wish to adapt this to another region, you can search for stations using data interfaces such as:
- Plate Boundary Observatory Network Health Map. Zoom into your area of interest. Click on a individual station and then the station name to get to the station info and data page.
- DAI 2, the data archive and visualizer for campaign and PBO data stored by UNAVCO. Use the map to locate PBO or other permanent installations related to your study area. You can download the time-series graphs directly to replace the ones in the assignment. CSV point data is also available for download through the interactive data tool. Then review and modify questions in the assignment so that they are appropriate for the new data.
See how we did this for an area in Alaska here: Unit 3 Introduction to GNSS Time Series - Cook Inlet, AK (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 2.1MB Apr24 18). Blank graph (see right) may also be helpful if the ones within the existing exercises are not the correct scale. Alternatively you could use the graphs in this EPS file Blank GPS plots used to make the AK assignment (Encapsulated Postscript 1MB Oct18 18)
Much of the formative assessment can be done through observations of and discussions with students individually, in pairs, or sometimes in the whole group. This should be done periodically throughout the process as it helps gauge student understanding and weaknesses. Students should be encouraged to answer their own questions through deductive reasoning. A large portion of the grading should be attributed to students' individual participation and contribution to the group effort. Students will turn in their student exercise. Questions should be graded for completeness.
The Summative Assessment is the Static Survey of a Leveling Line. Students measure a leveling line (or other campaign deployment scenario). Students should be assessed mostly on their ability to perform the survey and to place the survey's results in a broader context or social implication.
- Unit 3: Time-Series Analysis Exercise
References and Resources
- Videos for explaining GNSS:
- Resources for data processing
- OPUS online tool for post-processing base station data
- GAMIT-GLOBK: An advanced processing solution for static to permanent installations, allows processing of batch files and continuous data.
- GIPSY-OASIS: Another advanced processing solution for Precision Point Processing (PPP)
- Resources for benchmarking and standards
- National Geodetic Survey (NGS)
- NGS: Finding Survey Marks and Datasheets
- NGS: GPS on Bench Marks (GPS on BM) campaign
- P. H. Rydlund Jr. and B. K. Densmore. 2012. Methods of practice and guidelines for using survey-grade global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) to establish vertical datum in the United States Geological Survey: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 11, chap. D1, 102 p.
- UNAVCO Knowledge Base has many resources on GPS/GNSS equipment and methods.
Additional Resources for Instructors:
Paper related to the time series exercise in Idaho
- S. J. Payne, R. McCaffrey, R. W. King, and S. A. Kattenhorn. 2012. A new interpretation of deformation rates in the Snake River Plain and adjacent basin and range regions based on GPS measurements, Geophysical Journal International, Volume 189, Issue 1, p 101–22, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2012.05370.x.
Papers related to the time series exercise in Alaska
- Location and Extent of Tertiary Structures in Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, and Mantle Dynamics that Focus Deformation and Subsidence, USGS Professional Paper 1776–D
- Haeussler et al., 2000. Potential seismic hazards and tectonics of the upper Cook Inlet basin, Alaska, based on analysis of Pliocene and younger deformation, Geological Society of America Bulletin, doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(2000)112<1414:PSHATO>2.0.CO;2.