# References on Conjectures

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Articles and Books

**Ausubel, D. P. (1960)**. The Use of Advance Organizers in the Learning and Retention of Meaningful Verbal Learning. *Journal of Educational Psychology, 1*, 267.

**Bransford, J., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (Eds.) (2000)** How people learn: Brain, mind, exerience, and school. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

**Chance, B., delMas, R., & Garfield, J. (2004)**. Reasoning About Sampling Distributions. In D. Ben-Zavi & J. Garfield (Eds.), *The Challenge of Developing Statistical Literacy, Reasoning, and Thinking*. Kluwer Academic Publishers; Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

**Cobb, P., & Bowers, J. (1999)**. Cognitive and Situated Learning Perspectives in Theory and Practice. *Educational Researcher, 28(2)*, 4-15.

**Cortina, J. L. (2002)**. Developing Instructional Conjectures about How to Support Student Understanding of the Arithmetic Mean as a Ratio. ICOTS6.

**Garfield, J., delMas, R., and Chance, B. (in press)**. Using student informal notions of variability to develop an understanding of formal measures of variability. In *Thinking about Data, edited by P. Shah and M. Lovett*.

**Macdonald, R. H., Manduca, C. A., Mogk, D. W., & Tewksbury, B. J. (2005)**. Teaching Methods in Undergraduate Geoscience Courses: Results of the 2004 On the Cutting Edge Survey of U. S. Faculty. *Journal of Geoscience Education, 53(3)*, 237-252.

**Mosteller, F. (1988)**. Broadening the Scope of Statistics and Statistical Education, *The American Statistician, 42*, 93-99.

**Pfannkuch, M., & Brown, C. M. (1996)** Building on and Challenging Student Intuition About Probability: Can We Improve Undergraduate Learning? *Journal of Statistics Education, 4(1)*, 1-22.

**Piaget, J. (2001)**. *The psychology of intelligence* (2nd Ed.). London: Routledge. [Originally published in 1950].

**Posner, G. J., Strike, K. A., Hewson, P. W. and Gertzog, W. A. (1982)**, Accommodation of a Scientific Conception: Toward a Theory of Conceptual Change, *Science Education, 66(2)*, 211-227.

**Ramsey, W., Stich, S. P. & Rumelhart, D. W. (1991)**. Philosophy and Connectionist Theory. In *Developments in Connectionist Theory,* Rumelhart & Gluck (Eds.)

**Rossman, A. L., & Chance, B. L. (1998)**. The Workshop Mathematics Project - *Workshop Statistics: Discovery with Data and Minitab.* Springer-/Verlag: New York.

**Scheaffer, R. L., Watkins, A., Witmer, J., & Gnanadesikan, M. (2004)**. *Activity-Based Statistics* (2nd Ed.) Instructor Resources. Key College Publishing

**Simon, M. A. (1995)**. Reconstructing Mathematics Pedagogy from a Constructivist Perspective. *Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 26(2)*, 114-145.

## Articles and Papers Available Online or with Abstracts on CAUSEweb.org

**American Heritage Dictionary (2006)** American Heritage Dictionary

**Bakker, A. & Gravemeijer, K. P. E. (2004)**. Learning to Reason About Distribution.

The purpose of this chapter is to explore how informal reasoning about distribution can be developed in a technological learning environment.

To read more: Reasoning About Distribution

**Burtch, M. (2003)**. The Evolution of Conjecturing in a Differential Equations Course. Conjecturing in a Course.

**Chance, B. L. (2002)**. Components of Statistical Thinking and Implications for Instruction and Assessment. *Journal of Statistical Education, 10(3)*, 1-26. Implications for Instruction

**Cobb, P., & McClain, K. (2004)**. Principles of Instructional Design for Supporting the Development of Student Statistical Reasoning. In D. Ben-Zavi & J. Garfield (Eds.), *The Challenge of Developing Statistical Literacy, Reasoning, and Thinking.* Kluwer Academic Publishers; Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

This chapter proposes design principles for developing statistical reasoning in students.

To learn more: Developing Statisitcal Reasoning

**Davis, J. (2001)**. Conceptual Change. In M. Orey (Ed.), *Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology.*

Available Website: Conceptual Change

**delMas, R. C., Garfield, J. B., & Chance, B. L. (1999)**. A Model of Classroom Research in Action: Developing Simulation Activities to Improve Student Statistical Reasoning.

Our findings demonstrate that while software can provide the means for a rich classroom experience, computer simulations alone do not guarantee conceptual change.

To read more: Developing Simulation Activities

**Edelson, D. C., Pea, R. D., & Gomez, L. M. (1996)**. The Collaboratory Notebook. *Communications of the ACM, 39(4)*, 32-33. Collaboratory Notebook

**Makar, K., & Confrey, J. (2002)**. Comparing Two Distributions: Investigating Secondary Teacher Statistical Thinking. ICOTS6.

This paper highlights the statistical thinking of teachers in analyzing their own student high-stakes test data.

To learn more: Investigating Secondary Teacher Statistical Thinking

**Meletiou-Mavrotheris, M.. & Lee, C. (2002)**. Teaching Students the Stochastic Nature of Statistical Concepts in an Introductory Statistics Course. *Statistics Education Research Journal, 1(2)*, 22-37. Statistical Concepts

**Saldanha, L. (2004)**. Is This Sample Unusual? An investigation of students: Exploring connections between sampling distributions and statistical inference.

This study explores the reasoning that emerged among eight high school juniors and seniors as they participated in a classroom teaching experiment addressing stochastic conceptions of sampling and statistical inference.

To learn more: Exploring Connections