Ethics and Professionalism in Nanotechnology
David Mogk, Dept. of Earth Sciences, Montana State University, based on content originally developed for the Teaching GeoEthics Across the Geosceince Curriculum Project.
Principles of Professionalism
Collegiality. Citizenship. Comity. Consensus. Whatever you call it, we all have to get along in the workplace and life. In this module we look at the Responsible Conduct of Scientists: the professional behaviors, attitudes and interpersonal relations of scientists at work. It's a simple matter of RESPECT and RESPONSIBILITY: for people and for our Science. This section provides background information on underlying principles that contribute to "workplace climate": trust, responsibility, justice, freedom. Resources and readings from this section provide rich materials for group discussion and personal reflection.
- The Singapore Statement provides the principle of "Professional courtesy and fairness in working with others" and responsibilities related to authorship, acknowledgement, peer review conflict of interest, public communication, reporting and responding to irresponsible conduct of research, research environments, and societal considerations.
- Six domains of research ethics. A heuristic framework for the responsible conduct of research.--K.D. Pimple, Sci Eng Ethics. 2002; Apr;8(2):191-205. "The six domains are scientific integrity, collegiality, protection of human subjects, animal welfare, institutional integrity, and social responsibility."
Is your department/workplace welcoming and inclusive for ALL people? The geosciences have the lowest rate of participation among the STEM disciplines for people from underrepresented groups. What is being done in your department, what can you do personally, to make your work environment inclusive and welcoming to ALL people? "Political correctness" is about respect for human dignity for ALL people. "Locker room banter" is hurtful to many people whether directed towards individuals or not.
- Center for Changing Our Campus Culture--includes extensive resources on "...the latest research, sample campus policies, protocols, best practices and information on how to access training opportunities and technical assistance."
- The CSWA Survey of Workplace Climate (AAS Committee on Status of Women in Astronomy; Christina Richey, Kathryn Clancy, Katharine Lee, and Erica Rodgers) reveals systemic issues related to harassment of many types.
- Climate Control - Gender and Racial Bias in Engineering
Building an Inclusive Department/Program/Profession
- Of Rocks and Social Justice--Editorial, NATURE GEOSCIENCE, VOL 9, NOVEMBER 2016. "Despite much emphasis on diversity in the US, geoscience remains one of the least diverse scientific disciplines. If we want to achieve and maintain diversity, we need to make our work environments welcoming to a broad spectrum of voices."
- Inclusive Astronomy--2015 recommendations from the American Astronomical Society; what lessons can be learned for the rest of the geosciences? --Contributed by Carolyn Brinkworth.
- Building an Inclusive AAS - The Critical Role of Diversity and Inclusion Training for AAS Council and Astronomy Leadership--Carolyn Brinkworth, Allison Byrd Skaer, Chanda Prescod-Weinstein, Johanna Teske, Sarah Tuttle (2016). White Paper submitted to the AAS Education Task Force.
- CSWA Survey Workplace Climate and Uncomfortable Conversation About Harassment--AAS Committee on the Status of Women in Astronomy report
- Gender Bias in the Workplace--from UCAR, numerous examples are documented. (Contributed by Carolyn Brinkworth).
- Values for the Trump Era--by Colleen Flaherty, November 30, 2016 from Inside Higher Education. Philosopher proposes a code of conduct for academics in a time of political uncertainty. MIT faculty members affirm their commitment to shared values.
- I will not aid in the registering, rounding up or internment of students and colleagues on the basis of their religious beliefs.
- I will not aid in the marginalization, exclusion or deportation of my undocumented students and colleagues.
- I will, as my capacities allow, discourage and defend against the bullying and harassment of vulnerable students and colleagues targeted for important aspects of their identity (such as race, gender, religious beliefs, sexual orientation, etc.)
- I will not aid government or law enforcement in activities which violate the U.S. Constitution or other U.S. law.
- I will not aid in government surveillance. I will not inform.
- As a teacher and researcher, I will not be bought or intimidated. I will present the state of research in my field accurately, whether or not it is what the government wants to hear. I will challenge others when they lie.
- I will not be shy about my commitment to academic values: truth, objectivity, free inquiry and rational debate. I will challenge others when they engage in behavior contrary to these values.
- As an administrator, I will defend my students, faculty and nonacademic staff. I will not allow the expulsion, firing, disciplining, harassment or marginalization of individuals targeted for being members of disfavored groups or for expressing dangerous opinions. I will speak up for academic freedom. I will insist on the autonomy of my institution.
- I will stand with my colleagues at other institutions, and defend their rights and freedoms.
- I will be fair and unbiased in the classroom, in grading and in all my dealings with all my students, including those who disagree with me politically.
- Gendered Skepticism--Colleen Flaherty, January 8, 2015 from Inside Higher Education; New study on online comments suggests big gap in the way men and women perceive evidence of gender bias in sciences.
- Inclusive Teaching Resources and Strategies--University of Michigan Center for Research on Learning and Teaching;
- An international perspective: Science in Australia Gender Equity Athena SWAN Principles
- Consider making an affirmative statement about inclusiveness on your department webpage. Here is an example from the Department of Geosciences, Boise State University ID USA
- Here is the MIT Statement of Shared Values
- The University of California system issued this statement of UC's Principles Against Intolerance--President Janet Napolitano and Chancellors.
Administrators, faculty, staff, students, managers and co-workers may encounter all manner of interpersonal conflicts that may affect the safety and productivity of the work environment. Know how to recognize the signs of potential trouble, intervene early to prevent a bad situation, know the rules, and have a plan in place about how you can respond to mitigate impacts. Here are some thoughts on how to prepare:
- Be Prepared blog post on Earth and Mind and presentation (PowerPoint 2007 (.pptx) 5.8MB Dec11 16) made to the 2017 AGU Heads and Chairs meeting session on Addressing Harassment and Improving Workplace Climate by David Mogk.
Power in Social Structures
- A Field Test for Identifying Appropriate Sexual Partners in Academia--posted by Jon F. Wilkins, February 16, 2016 on Lost in Transcription; contains some interesting reflections on the nature of power in hierarchial academic settings. "Here's the rule: When you have substantial power over someone, don't hit on them."
"The scientific enterprise is built on a foundation of trust. Society trusts that scientific research results are an honest and accurate reflection of a researcher's work. Researchers equally trust that their colleagues have gathered data carefully, have used appropriate analytic and statistical techniques, have reported their results accurately, and have treated the work of other researchers with respect. From On Being a Scientist-- National Academy of Sciences 3rd Edition (Contributed by Linda Gundersen)
The following are some reflections on trust from: David Resnik, Scientific Research and the Public Trust, Sci Eng Ethics. 2011 Sep; 17(3): 399â€"409, doi: 10.1007/s11948-010-9210-x
What is trust?
- Relationship between or among people
- Between individuals (e.g., doctor-patient) or Groups/Profession
- To facilitate cooperative social inteactions
- Business, family relations....shared expectations of behavior
- To enable risk taking
- Expectation to use skills and sound judgment
- Does not know with certainty something will happen
- judged to be trustworthy
- Competence, experience, good will
- Ethical and legal duties
- Obligation to do what is expected
Trust in Scientific Research
- Promotes cooperative relationships and activities among researchers, such as collaborative work, publication, peer review, sharing data, replication of research results, teaching, and mentoring
- Important in research with human subjects
- Important in facilitating interactions between scientists and granting agencies, journals, universities, human research or animal research review boards, and other organizations or institutions involved in funding, supporting, and overseeing science.
- A Troubled Tradition It's time to rebuild trust among authors, editors and peer reviewers by David Resnik, American Scientist, 2011 Volume 99, Number 1
- Current pressures on funding sources can produce a hypercompetitive environment that can lead to unethical behaviors: Academic Research in the 21st Century: Maintaining Scientific Integrity in a Climate of Perverse Incentives and Hypercompetition -- Edwards, Marc A. and Roy Siddhartha. Environmental Engineering Science. January 2017, 34(1): 51-61. doi:10.1089/ees.2016.0223. "If a critical mass of scientists become untrustworthy, a tipping point is possible in which the scientific enterprise itself becomes inherently corrupt and public trust is lost, risking a new dark age with devastating consequences to humanity. Academia and federal agencies should better support science as a public good, and incentivize altruistic and ethical outcomes, while de-emphasizing output."
What is Public Trust in Scientific Research
- Society trusts that scientific research results are an honest and accurate reflection of a researcher's work Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy 2009: ix).
- The public must be able to trust the science and scientific process informing public policy decisions (Obama 2009).
- The mission of the NIH Public Trust Initiative (PTI) is to enable the public to understand and to have full confidence in the research that NIH conducts and supports across the country and throughout the world (National Institutes of Health 2010).
- Academic medicine is entrusted by society with the responsibility to undertake several important social missions toward improving the health of the public, including education, patient care, and research. This trust is given implicit authority by generous public funding and considerable autonomy (Schroeder et al 1989: 803).
- Society trusts researchers with public resources To maintain society's trust, scientists must exhibit good stewardship of research resources, adhere to ethical standards, and generate knowledge that has useful applications
- Society trusts researchers to provide knowledge and expertise that can inform public policy.
- Policy debates concerning public health, pollution, climate change, economic development, substance abuse, energy utilization,
- Scientists serve on government advisory bodies and regulatory boards, and give expert testimony to legislative committees.
- Scientific testimony is often a major factor in criminal cases, products liability litigation, and medical malpractice lawsuits
- Society trusts scientists to provide knowledge that will yield beneficial applications in medicine, industry, engineering, technology, agriculture, transportation, communication, and other domains
- Important in gaining public acceptance of new technologies (nuclear power, nanotechnology
- Essential when the risks and benefits of new technologies are not well understood, because the public must rely on scientists to make informed judgments about those new technologies
The International Science Council (ICSU) has defined The Principle of Universality (freedom and responsibility) of Science. ICSU Statue 5 states: "The free and responsible practice of science is fundamental to scientific advancement and human and environmental well-being. Such practice, in all its aspects, requires freedom of movement, association, expression and communication for scientists, as well as equitable access to data, information, and other resources for research. It requires responsibility at all levels to carry out and communicate scientific work with integrity, respect, fairness, trustworthiness, and transparency, recognizing its benefits and possible harms.
In advocating the free and responsible practice of science, ICSU promotes equitable opportunities for access to science and its benefits, and opposes discrimination based on such factors as ethnic origin, religion, citizenship, language, political or other opinion, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, disability, or age." (Contributed by Linda Gundersen)
A large concern of Scientific Freedom, is the expectation that scientific research should be done without fear of overt political pressure.
- USDA Scientific Integrity Policy Handbook -- July 2013 and updated March 8, 2016. "USDA is committed to a culture of scientific integrity.. Science, and public trust in science, thrives in an environment that shields scientific data and analyses and their use in policy making from political interference or inappropriate influcuence. Scientific and technical findings should not be suppressed or altered for political purposes."
- A recent troubling incident: Trump transition team for Energy Department seeks names of employees involved in climate meetings--article by Steven Mufson and Juliet Eliperin, published December 9, 2016 in the Washington Post.
- Freedom to Bully,How Laws Intended to Free Information are Used to Harass Researchers--Michael Halpern, February 2015, Union of Concerned Scientists, Center for Science and Democracy. "Open records laws are increasingly being used as a weapon against researchers whose work threatens private interests"
- New Energy Dept. guidelines: Changing culture or political ploy?--Ellen Powell, January 12, 2017, Christian Science Monitor; "Scientists can now speak freely to the media and publish in scientific journals. The guidelines may set the course for the upcoming confirmation hearing for Energy Secretary â€" and the department's next four years." Access the U.S. Dept. of Energy Scientific Integrity Policy "This document sets forth a policy intended to 1) ensure a culture of scientific integrity; (2) strengthen the actual and perceived credibility of the Federal Governmentt and Federal Government-sponsored research; (3) facilitate the free flow of scientific and technical informatio consistent with privacy and classification standards and applicable laws, regulations, and DOE Orders and Policies; and (4) establish principles for conveying scientific and technological information to the public."
The dignity of all people must be respected. Attacks on "political correctness" does not give license to denigrate, humiliate, marginalize and abuse. "Locker room banter" is not OK. It is hurtful and has real consequences. Be civil. Enough said.
Scientists have responsibilities at many levels, to: Science, the profession, colleagues, students, employers and employees, clients and end users, the public and humanity. For example, these responsibilities are specifically identified in the
- Geological Society of America Code of Conduct.
- The Sciences and Profession
Geoscientists should seek to advance all disciplines of the geosciences, understand the limitations of their knowledge, and respect objectivity and truth in their professional endeavors. Geoscientists should ensure that their scientific contributions, and those of their collaborators, are thorough, accurate, and unbiased in design, implementation, and presentation. Where appropriate, geoscientists should remain current with developments in their field, share ideas and information, keep accurate and complete laboratory records, maintain integrity in all conduct and publications, and give due credit to the contributions of others. Conflicts of interest and scientific misconduct, such as fabrication, falsification, omission/suppression of results, and plagiarism, are incompatible with this Code.
- The Students and Colleagues
Geoscientists should mentor and encourage all students in a manner that is open-minded, objective and enthusiastic; promotes curiosity, and recognizes that education is a fundamental trust conferred by society for the promotion of the student's learning and professional development. Geoscientists should treat associates with respect, regardless of the level of their formal education, encourage them, learn with them, share ideas honestly, and give credit for their contributions.
- The Employer and Employees
Geoscientists should promote and protect the legitimate interests of their employers, perform work honestly and competently, fulfill obligations, and safeguard proprietary information. Geoscientists, as employers, should treat subordinates with respect for their professionalism and concern for their well-being, and provide them with a safe, congenial working environment, fair compensation, and proper acknowledgment of their scientific contributions.
- The Clients and End Users
Geoscientists accept uncertainty and integrate information with a unique perspective involving time, space, and scale. Geoscientists should provide for, advise, and serve clients and end users in a manner that is honest, objective, competent, dependable, honorable, respectful, and fair.
- The Public and Humankind
All geoscientists have a professional responsibility to serve the public interest and welfare and to further knowledge of science for the benefit of humankind. Geoscientists should actively be concerned with the health and welfare of humankind and effectively communicate knowledge about potential natural hazards to the public. Public comments on scientific matters should be made with care and precision, without unsubstantiated, exaggerated, or premature statements.
- The Environment and Natural Resources
Geoscientists should strive to communicate their knowledge to protect the environment and to provide appropriate stewardship of natural resources. Geoscientists should also understand and anticipate the consequences of their work on the environment and natural resources.
- The Sciences and Profession
- The AGU Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics Scientific Code of Conduct and Professional Ethics also defines Responsibilities (p. 2-4).
: 1. Integrity: Members will act in the interest of the advancement of science and take full responsibility for the trustworthiness of their research and its dissemination.
2. Adherence to Law and Regulations: Members will be aware of and adhere to laws and regulations related to the conduct of research as well as AGU policy on publications, peer review, scientific integrity, and professional ethics.
3. Research Methods: Members will employ research methods to the best of their understanding and ability, base conclusions on critical analysis of the evidence, and report findings and interpretations fully, accurately, and objectively, including characterization of uncertainties.
4. Research Records: Members will maintain clear, accurate records of research in ways that will allow verification and replication of their work by others.
5. Research Findings: Members will share data and findings openly and promptly, as soon as they have had an opportunity to establish intellectual property rights, if appropriate. Members will respect the intellectual property rights of others.
6. Responsibility: Members will take responsibility for the integrity of their contributions to all publications, funding applications, reports, and other representations of their research. Author credit should be given only to those who have made meaningful contributions to publications. Members will abide by AGU Guidelines to authors (http://www.agu.org/pubs/authorguide/).
7. Acknowledgement: Members will acknowledge the names and roles of those who made significant contributions (such as ideas and scientific discussion)to the research.
8. Peer Review: Members will adhere to AGU review policy and provide fair, impartial, prompt, and rigorous evaluations and will respect confidentiality when reviewing others' work. Members will welcome constructive criticism and be responsive to peer review.
9. Conflict of Interest: Members will disclose financial, personal, professional, and other conflicts of interest that could compromise the trustworthiness of their work on AGU committees, publications, research proposals, meeting presentations, and public communications as well as in all review activities.
10. Public Communication: Members, when representing AGU, will limit professional comments to their areas of scholarly expertise when engaged in public discussions about the application and importance of research findings and will clearly distinguish professional comments from their opinions based on personal views.
11. Reporting Irresponsible Research Practices: Members will report suspected research misconduct, including fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism, and other irresponsible research practices that undermine the trustworthiness of research to the AGU following the procedures of this policy.
12. Environment: AGU members work to maintain an environment that allows science and scientific careers to flourish. AGU members will not engage in dishonesty, fraud, misrepresentation, coercive manipulation, censorship, or other misconduct that alters the content, veracity, or meaning of research findings or that may affect the planning, conduct, reporting, or application of science.
13. Societal Considerations: Members have an ethical obligation to weigh the societal benefits of their research against the costs and risks to human and animal welfare and impacts on the environment and society. Members need to be aware of legal requirements in this area.
- Here's a reflection on Accountability (my father spent a lifetime involved with baseball, and this is a sports parable that applies):
One name, in particular, kept resurfacing for an upcoming event --- always with the same sentiment â€" "John Scolinos is here????????
Who is John Scolinos ?? In Nashville, Tennessee , during the first week of January, 1996, more than 4,000 baseball coaches descended upon the Opryland Hotel for the 52nd annual ABCA's convention. While I waited in line to register with the hotel staff, I heard other more veteran coaches rumbling about the lineup of speakers scheduled to present during the weekend --- Scolinos, I wondered. No matter; I was just happy to be there. In 1996, Coach Scolinos was 78 years old and five years retired from a college coaching career that began in 1948. He shuffled to the stage to an impressive standing ovation, wearing dark polyester pants, a light blue shirt, and a string around his neck from which home plate hung â€" a full-sized, stark-white home plate.
Seriously, I wondered, who is this guy?
After speaking for twenty-five minutes, not once mentioning the prop hanging around his neck, Coach Scolinos appeared to notice the snickering among some of the coaches. Even those who knew Coach Scolinos had to wonder exactly where he was going with this, or if he had simply forgotten about home plate since he'd gotten on stage.
Then, finally ..."You're probably all wondering why I'm wearing home plate around my neck," he said, his voice growing irascible. I laughed along with the others, acknowledging the possibility. "I may be old, but I'm not crazy. The reason I stand before you today is to share with you baseball people what I've learned in my life, what I've learned about home plate in my 78 years." Several hands went up when Scolinos asked how many Little League coaches were in the room.
"Do you know how wide home plate is in Little League? After a pause, someone offered, "Seventeen inches?", more of a question than answer."That's right," he said. "How about in Babe Ruth's day? Any Babe Ruth coaches in the house?"Another long pause.
"Seventeen inches?" a guess from another reluctant coach.
"That's right," said Scolinos. "Now, how many high school coaches do we have in the room?" Hundreds of hands shot up, as the pattern began to appear. "How wide is home plate in high school baseball?
"Seventeen inches," they said, sounding more confident. "You're right!" Scolinos barked. "And you college coaches, how wide is home plate in college?"
"Seventeen inches!" we said, in unison. "Any Minor League coaches here? How wide is home plate in pro ball?"............"Seventeen inches!
"RIGHT! And in the Major Leagues, how wide home plate is in the Major Leagues?
"SEV-EN-TEEN INCHES!" he confirmed, his voice bellowing off the walls. "And what do they do with a Big League pitcher who can't throw the ball over seventeen inches?" Pause. "They send him to Pocatello !" he hollered, drawing raucous laughter. "What they don't do is this: they don't say, 'Ah, that's okay, Jimmy. You can't hit a seventeen-inch target? We'll make it eighteen inches or nineteen inches. We'll make it twenty inches so you have a better chance of hitting it. If you can't hit that, let us know so we can make it wider still, say twenty-five inches.'"
Pause. "Coaches..." pause, "... what do we do when our best player shows up late to practice? When our team rules forbid facial hair and a guy shows up unshaven? What if he gets caught drinking? Do we hold him accountable? Or do we change the rules to fit him? Do we widen home plate? The chuckles gradually faded as four thousand coaches grew quiet, the fog lifting as the old coach's message began to unfold. He turned the plate toward himself and, using a Sharpie, began to draw something. When he turned it toward the crowd, point up, a house was revealed, complete with a freshly drawn door and two windows. "This is the problem in our homes today. With our marriages, with the way we parent our kids. With our discipline. We don't teach accountability to our kids, and there is no consequence for failing to meet standards. We widen the plate!"
Pause. Then, to the point at the top of the house he added a small American flag. "This is the problem in our schools today. The quality of our education is going downhill fast and teachers have been stripped of the tools they need to be successful, and to educate and discipline our young people. We are allowing others to widen home plate! Where is that getting us?"
Silence. He replaced the flag with a Cross. "And this is the problem in the Church, where powerful people in positions of authority have taken advantage of young children, only to have such an atrocity swept under the rug for years. Our church leaders are widening home plate for themselves! And we allow it."
"And the same is true with our government. Our so called representatives make rules for us that don't apply to themselves. They take bribes from lobbyists and foreign countries. They no longer serve us. And we allow them to widen home plate and we see our country falling into a dark abyss while we watch."
I was amazed. At a baseball convention where I expected to learn something about curve balls and bunting and how to run better practices, I had learned something far more valuable. From an old man with home plate strung around his neck, I had learned something about life, about myself, about my own weaknesses and about my responsibilities as a leader. I had to hold myself and others accountable to that which I knew to be right, lest our families, our faith, and our society continue down an undesirable path.
"If I am lucky," Coach Scolinos concluded, "you will remember one thing from this old coach today. It is this: if we fail to hold ourselves to a higher standard, a standard of what we know to be right; if we fail to hold our spouses and our children to the same standards, if we are unwilling or unable to provide a consequence when they do not meet the standard; and if our schools & churches & our government fail to hold themselves accountable to those they serve, there is but one thing to look forward to ..."
With that, he held home plate in front of his chest, turned it around, and revealed its dark black backside, "... dark days ahead."
Coach Scolinos died in 2009 at the age of 91, but not before touching the lives of hundreds of players and coaches, including mine. Meeting him at my first ABCA convention kept me returning year after year, looking for similar wisdom and inspiration from other coaches. He is the best clinic speaker the ABCA has ever known because he was so much more than a baseball coach. His message was clear: "Coaches, keep your playersâ€"no matter how good they areâ€"your own children, your churches, your government, and most of all, keep yourself at seventeen inches."
And this my friends is what our country has become and what is wrong with it today, and how to fix it. "Don't widen the plate."
- address tomorrow's needs and aspirations
- maintaining global sustainability,
- improving human health,
- addressing economic disparities,
- understanding our place in the universe,
- promoting peace and security, and
- directing the products of technology toward the betterment of society, nationally and worldwide".
- Geoethics and Society--the sister module from Teaching Geoethics Across the Geoscience Curriculum.
- Why must scientists become more ethically sensitive than they used to be?-- Ziman, J., 1998, Science, 282, p. 1813,1814.
- Koocher, G., and Keith-Speigel, P., 2010, Peers nip misconduct in the bud: Nature, 466, p. 438-440. Responding to Suspected Violations of Professional Standards, Whistle Blowing
- On Being A Scientist --A Guide to Responsible Conduct of Research 3rd Ed., 2009, National Academy Press (pages 19-23)
- Whistle Blowing--Resources for Research Ethics Education, UC San Diego
- Ethical relationships between science and society: Understanding the social responsibility of scientists--Small, B. H. (2011). (Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)). University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10289/5397
- The December 29 article from Wired Magazine on Harassment in the Sciences provides a month recap of 2016 news stories on this topic.
- AAU Climate Survey on Sexual Assault and Sexual Misconduct--
- Overall, 11.7 percent of student respondents across 27 universities reported experiencing nonconsensual sexual contact by physical force, threats of physical force, or incapacitation since they enrolled at their university.
- The incidence of sexual assault and sexual misconduct due to physical force, threats of physical force, or incapacitation among female undergraduate student respondents was 23.1 percent, including 10.8 percent who experienced penetration.
- Overall rates of reporting to campus officials and law enforcement or others were low, ranging from five percent to 28 percent, depending on the specific type of behavior.
- The most common reason for not reporting incidents of sexual assault and sexual misconduct was that it was not considered serious enough.
- Other reasons included because they were "embarrassed, ashamed or that it would be too emotionally difficult," and because they "did not think anything would be done about it." More than six in 10 student respondents (63.3 percent) believe that a report of sexual assault or sexual misconduct would be taken seriously by campus officials.
- Not a Fluke: That Case of Sexual Harassment or Assault is not an isolated Incident!--Julie Libarkin, Geocognition Research Laboratory at Michigan State University, has posted this compilation of documented cases of sexual harassment or assault. As of 12/20/2016 there are 485 documented cases and counting!
- Sexual Harassment: Defining the Problem--posted by John Johnson, May 12, 2014, in Women in Astronomy.
- How Sexual Harassment Halts Science--Vince Grzegorek published in SLATE.
- What Happens When a Harassment Whistleblower Goes on the Science Job Market?--Sarah Scoles, 7/17/2016 from Wired.
- How Women are Harassed Out of Science--Joan C. Williams and Kate Massinger, Atlantic Magazine, July 25, 2016
- Coming Out of the Shadows: A Sexual Harassment Story--Joan Schmelz, posted February 17, 2011 on Blogspot.
- From the Field: Hazed Tells Her Story of Harassment--Kate Clancy, January 30, 2012, Scientific American
- The National Academy of Sciences Committee on Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop to address Impacts of Sexual Harassment in Academia on March 28, 2017. See the article in April 7, 2017 EOS that reports on this issue: Tacklng Sexual Harassment in Science: A Long Road Ahead
- The Nationals Science Foundation Will Not Tolerate Harassment at Grantee Institutions--NSF Policy Statement, 25 January 2016
- Should institutions explicitly address "Rape Culture" in their sexual misconduct policies? Read this article from Inside Higher Education (posted November 7, 2016)
- Whom Does Secrecy Protect?--article from Inside Higher Education. "Colleges don't tell students that professors are being investigated -- or even had been found guilty of -- harassment. Berkeley grad students demand change in this practice."
- Addressing Sexual Harassment in the Science, Engineering, and Medical Workplaces A Scoping Workshop Summary--National Academy of Sciences, Committee on Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine (CWSEM) Workshop 2016.
- Sexual Harassment in the Sciences: A Call to Respond (9 September, 2016 Workshop) convened by AAAS, NSF, AGU, ACS, AWG; see the [link https://harassment.agu.org/files/2016/10/30Sept_Draft-Principles-for-Addressing Harassment_Workshop-Recommendation.pdf 'Common Principles Recommendation']
- Burden of Proof in the Balance--Jake New, December 16, 2016 from Inside Higher Education; "If Trump administration changes the rules on colleges' obligations in adjudicating sex assault charges, will institutions change their policies?"
- Complaints of sexual harassment and other forms of discrimiation are addressed by the Department of Education's Office of Civil Rights. In the 2016 OCR report Securing Equal Educational Opportunity, a record 16,720 complaints were filed in the past year according to an article in Inside Higher Education. A companion article, Campus Sexual Assault in a Trump Era (November 10, 2016, Inside Higher Education) reports: "President-elect Trump has offered few details on how his administration might deal with campus sexual assault, but his surrogates and other Republicans say they would scale back enforcement of Title IX". And Burden of Proof in the Balance--from Inside Higher Education, Jake New, December 16, 2016; "If Trump administration changes the rules on colleges' obligations in adjudicating sex assault charges, will institutions change their policies?"
- Title IX Officers Pay a Price for Navigating a Volatile Issue--Robin Wilson, October 16, 2016, Chronicle of Higher Education.
- Sexual Harassment in the Sciences: A Call to Respond--AGU press release for the 9 September 2016 workshop sponsored by AGU, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Chemical Society, American Geosciences Institute, Association for Women Geoscientists, and Earth Science Women's Network. Read the Draft Organizational Principles for Addressing Harassment (Acrobat (PDF) 611kB Jan8 17)
- See AGU's webpages on Harassment and Ethics, and the more encompassing AGU Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics Policy (2013)
- The 2016 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting (see Events on Ethics, Response to Harassment and Work-climate) embarked on a Safe AGU (Acrobat (PDF) 141kB Jan3 17) campaign that included numerous workshops and theme sessions, and the annual AGU Heads and Chairs Meeting held a half day session on "Addressing harassment and improving workplace climate" led by Rebecca Haacker, Director SOARS Program UCAR, Carolyn Brinkworth, Director of Diversity, Education and Outreach, NCAR, David Mogk, Professor of Geology, Montana State University. (See the program for the slide sets and related resources)
- Anti-Harassment Policy for AAS & Division Meetings and Activities--policies developed by the American Astronomical Society.
- The 2015 AGU Meeting held a Town Hall Meeting on Forward Focused Ethics--What is the Role of Scientific Societies in Responding to Harassment and other Workplace Climate Issues?-- (watch the YouTube Recording)
- Steps to Building a No-Tolerance Culture for Sexual Harassment--MarÃn-Spiotta, E., B. Schneider, and M. A. Holmes (2016), Steps to building a no-tolerance culture for sexual harassment, Eos, 97, doi:10.1029/2016EO044859. Published on 28 January 2016.
- Sexual Harassment and Scientific Community--From the Prow statement by By Margaret Leinen, President, American Geophysical Union, Eric Davidson, President-elect, American Geophysical Union, and Carol Finn, Past President, American Geophysical Union
- Senior Scientists Must Engage in the Fight Against Harassment-- Diniega, S., J. Tan, M. S. Tiscareno, and E. Wehner (2016), Senior scientists must engage in the fight against harassment, Eos, 97, doi:10.1029/2016EO058767. Published on 08 September 2016.
- Sexual Harassment in the Sciences: A Call to Geoscience Faculty and Researchers to Respond (Acrobat (PDF) 65kB Jan3 17)-editorial by Kristin St. John, Eric Riggs, and David Mogk published in the Journal of Geoscience Education, 2016, v. 64, p. 255-257.
- Zero Tolerance. Period.--Bernard Wood, editorial in Science Magazine, 30 Oct 2015: Vol. 350, Issue 6260, pp. 487DOI: 10.1126/science.aad6652
- The Sexual Misconducdt Case that Rocked Anthropology--Michael Balter, February 9, 2016, Posted in Scientific Community, DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf4016
- Title IX and STEM--resources from American Women in Science (AWIS)
- Academic Community Responds to Harassment Cases--Toni Feder, Physics Today 69(6), 30 (2016); doi: 10.1063/PT.3.3195
- determining whether sexual conduct is "unwelcome";
- evaluating evidence of harassment;
- determining whether a work environment is sexually "hostile";
- holding employers liable for sexual harassment by supervisors; and
- evaluating preventive and remedial action taken in response to claims of sexual harassment.
- Title IX Protects Identities But Can Complicate Justice--Podcast from NPR documenting a court case involving sexual assault case of two female students by a professor at the University of Kentucky.
- Innocent Until Proven Guilty is Nonsense for Faculty Hiring--Jon Wilkins posted on Lost in Transcription February 5, 2015
- Call for Due Process for Accused Berkeley Professor--by Colleen Flaherty, November 21, 2016 from Inside Higher Education
- And an alternate response to this case 'link https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2016/11/17/berkeley-grad-students-say-they-should-have-been-told-their-professor-was-being?mc_cid=0318868672&mc_eid=b4ec990e8e 'Whom Does Secrecy Protect?]-- by Colleen Flaherty, November 17, 2016 from Inside Higher Education
- Was MSU Slow to Act on Removing Troubled Professor and (Bozeman) Chronicle challenges sealed ruling in MSU professors' investigation--articles documenting steps taken in response to complaints about sexual assault and bullying by faculty in the Dept. of Earth Sciences, Montana State University
- Supermajority Requirement in the Monority--Jake New, posted January 6, 2017 in Inside Higher Education. "Stanford faces criticism for policies requiring a supermajority or unanimous vote when deciding responsibility in sexual misconduct cases. Few other institutions have a similar process."
- EEOC Fact Sheet on Sexual Harassment
- Talking About Sexual Assault--Society's Response to Survivors--Sarah Ullman, 2010, American Psychological Association, 209p.
- Steps for Building a No-Tolerance Culture for Sexual Harassment MarÃn-Spiotta, E., B. Schneider, and M. A. Holmes (2016), Eos, 97, doi:10.1029/2016EO044859. Published on 28 January 2016
- Sexual Harassment Resources--US Dept of Education
- Holmes, M. A., S. O'Connell and K. Dutt (Eds.) (2015), Women in the Geosciences: Practical, Positive Practices Toward Parity, 192 pp., John Wiley, Hoboken, N.J.
- AWIS Webinars On Demand: "No Means No: Respond to Harassment in the Moment" and "Spot and Stop It: How to End Harassment at Professional Meetings" (NOTE: You must be an AWIS member to access these webinars).
- Famous Berkeley Astronomer Violated Sexual Harassment Policies Over Many Years--from Buzzfeed News documenting the Geoff March case at UC Berkeley.
- Out Here, No one Can Hear You Scream--reported sexual harassment and assault in the National Park Service. and US Forest Service.
- She Wanted to do her Research; He Wanted to Talk "Feelings"--N.Y. Times Opinion Article, 3 March 2016, Hope Jahren.
- Caltech suspends professor for harassment--as reported in the January 12, 2016 issues of Science.
- Social Behaviour: Indecent Advances--Virginia Gewin, 2015, Nature, v. 519, p. 251-253, doi:10.1038/nj7542-251a, Pu