The Jigsaw Technique

Barbara Tewksbury, Hamilton College

Overview of the technique

This technique can be used equally well for assignments involving data analysis or field work and in assignments involving reading.

jigsaw diagram
  • Prepare several different, related assignments for the class. In the pictorial example at right, the instructor devised four assignments, one for each of four teams. Each team then prepares one of the assignments.
  • Once each team is prepared, the class in the pictorial example at right is divided into four new groups. Each group will have one team member from each of the teams. Each member of the group is responsible for teaching the rest of the group what he/she has learned from his/her team assignment.
  • The group then puts all of the pieces together and completes a group task that can only be answered once all of the team pieces are together (hence the name "jigsaw"). This latter part is crucial to the technique.

Download detailed steps for using the jigsaw technique (Microsoft Word 30kB Jun15 05) The jigsaw technique was originally developed in the early 1970s at the University of Texas by Elliott Aronson, and his website (more info) has additional information on the technique.

A very simple jigsaw assignment

The following example provides a simple illustration of a jigsaw assignment that requires no student preparation and that can be used in a large class. Jeff Niemitz (Dickinson College) uses this in a class of 120 to introduce the topic of igneous rock classification.

  • As students enter the auditorium, they each pick up one rock from a box of samples by the classroom door. The box contains samples of gabbro, granite, and basalt.
  • The instructor asks students to study their rock samples and write down all the observations they can make about them.
  • After giving students several minutes to study their rocks, the instructor asks the students to make groups of three so that each group has three different rock types.
  • Each group then compares rocks, noting similarities and differences. The instructor then asks groups what they have noted in their rocks and writes down responses on an overhead transparency.
  • Students make all of the observations that one might expect them to make about color, grain size, and texture, providing an engaging base for the instructor to then introduce igneous rock classification.

An analysis of the assignment shows the hallmarks of the jigsaw technique:

  • The assignments are related. When it comes time for each student to teach the others about his/her rock, the listeners will immediately see similarities and differences with their own samples.
  • Students can complete the individual team assignment successfully to prepare for teaching. The peer-teaching aspect of this technique requires that students are successfully prepared, and the rock description task is simple enough to use in a large class without having to check on each student's preparation.
  • The group tackles an assignment that ties the individual contributions together to make a complete picture. Without the comparison assignment, the individual contributions remain unrelated presentations. With the comparison assignment, students in the group derive the principles of igneous rock classification.
  • Students are actively engaged and must explain what they have learned to their peers. Making the observations and explaining it to other group members enhances learning.
  • Individuals know their own assignments better than any of the ones presented by their peers. This is true partly because students must know their own assignments well enough to explain them and partly because their peers are typically not skilled presenters. This is an unavoidable aspect of the jigsaw technique. If you are considering using the jigsaw technique for a topic, and you realize that each student must know all aspects of the topic equally well, choose a teaching strategy other than jigsaw.
  • The amount of time devoted to the topic is comparable to coverage in a traditional lecture format. Although the jigsaw assignment takes time in class, the instructor does not need to spend as much time lecturing about igneous rock classification. If planned well, the overall time commitment to using the jigsaw technique during class is comparable to lecturing about a topic.

Other examples of jigsaw assignments

Benefits of the technique

  • Students have the opportunity to teach themselves, instead of having material presented to them. The technique fosters depth of understanding.
  • Each student has practice in self-teaching, which is the most valuable of all the skills we can help them learn.
  • Students have practice in peer teaching, which requires that they understand the material at a deeper level than students typically do when simply asked to produce on an exam.
  • Students "talk geology" and become more fluent in use of geological terminology.
  • Each student has a chance to contribute meaningfully to a discussion, something that is difficult to achieve in large-group discussion. Each student develops an expertise and has something important to contribute.
  • Asking each group to discuss a follow-up question after individual presentations fosters real discussion.