Allen and Tanner, 2005, Approaches to biology teaching and learning: from a scholarly approach to teaching to the scholarship of teaching Cell Biol. Educ. 4, 1-6. This article provides a brief review of how Scholarship of Teaching and Learning can inform undergraduate biology education and provides suggestions on how instructors can begin to utilize various SoTL resources.

Building Engineering and Science Talent, 2004, A Bridge for All: Higher Education Design Principles to Broaden Participation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. This 48-page document summarizes the results of a panel study of programs designed to broaden access to STEM fields for women, underrepresented minorities, and persons with disabilities in science.

Hanson, 2004, Assessment not evaluation is the key to learning PKAL Vol IV: What Works, What Matters, What Lasts? This essay distinguishes between summative evaluation (simple letter or numerical grading) and formative assessment (providing non-judgmental feedback so students can improve), and describes how instructors can (and should) move toward more formative assessment to improve learning.

Heller and Heller, 2004, Using the learning knowledge base: the connection between problem solving and cooperative group techniques. PKAL Volume IV: What Works, What Matters, What Lasts? In this article the authors discuss the "cognitive apprenticeship" learning theory in the context of solving problems in a physics course. Cognitive apprenticeship involves modeling, coaching (both peer and expert), and fading. Faculty serve as coaches who first model solving a problem, and then allow peers to teach each other in cooperative groups with faculty support. The coach then "fades," so that the individual is accountable for working independently.

Heller and Hollobaugh, 1992, Teaching problem solving through cooperative grouping. Part 2: Designing problems and structuring groups. Am. J. Phys. 60: 637-644. Abstract available online The authors provide evidence for setting up effective groups in science courses that involve problem solving. They suggest that three group members either homogenous in gender or groups composed of two female students and one male student work best. Effective groups are described as having a manager, skeptic, and recorder, and strategies are discussed for getting students to discuss their role in the group.

Heller, Keith, and Anderson, 1992, Teaching problem solving through cooperative grouping. Part 1: Group versus individual problem solving. Am. J. Phys. 60: 627-636. Abstract available online The authors provide evidence that students working in cooperative groups perform better than individuals on matched problems when the solutions are compared. They note that ALL students performed better in this environment (when compared to a control class), and that while their technique helped the struggling students, it was also beneficial for the best students. The authors discuss that this approach is time consuming and that they were able to cover less material than in a course not using the cooperative group problem solving.

Knight and Wood, 2005, Teaching More by Lecturing Less Cell Biol Educ 4: 298-310. This journal article describes an increase in learning gains and conceptual understanding due to the increased use of an interactive class format and cooperative problem solving in a college developmental biology course.

National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine, 2007, Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. In this report, prepared by the National Academies at the request of members of the U.S. congress, recommendations are made address how the U.S. can "enhance the science and technology enterprise so that the United States can successfully compete, prosper, and be secure in the global community of the 21st century." The highest priority recommendation is to "increase America's talent pool by vastly improving K-12 science and mathematics education."

National Science Board, 2005, Broadening Participation in Science and Engineering Research and Education: Workshop Proceedings. This is the report from a national workshop consisting of panel discussions on Models of Success for Broadening Participation, Changing Demographics and Challenges of the Future, Diversity Gap between Students and Faculty, and Policy Options Development.

Perry, Steele, and Hilliard, 2003, Young Gifted and Black: Promoting High Achievement among African-American Students, Boston: Beacon Press. A series of three essays, which provide an historical account of the role of education among African Americans, a description of the challenges facing black students in American schools, and the results of studies on stereotype threat. The authors provide examples of successful models for achieving excellence in teaching with black students, emphasizing the role of the teacher in student success rather than the more common approach of finding deficiencies in the student to explain 'achievement gaps'.

Project Kaleidoscope, 2006, Transforming America's Scientific and Technological Infrastructure: Recommendations for Urgent Action. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation. This PKAL report contains descriptions of the following recommendations for strengthening undergraduate STEM education: "focus on students now in the pipeline, focus on the future workforce, and focus on innovation for the future." The report summarizes calls to action from several other national organizations from industry and academe.

Steele, 1997, A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. Am. Psychol. 52, 613-629. Abstract available online This article thoroughly describes the theory of stereotype threat, "the threat that others' judgments or their own actions will negatively stereotype them in the domain." Stereotype threat can be used to explain differences in achievement between female students and male students or between minority students and white students. The article reviews evidence for this theory, its implications, and suggestions for counteracting it.

Swarat, Drane, Smith, Light, and Pinto, 2004, Opening the Gateway: Increasing minority student retention in introductory science courses. J. Coll. Sci. Teach. 34, 18-23. Abstract available online This article describes a program designed to increase retention in science courses which has been found to serve minority students particularly well.

Tanner and Allen, 2004, Approaches to biology teaching and learning: from assays to assessments - on collecting evidence in science teaching Cell. Bio. Educ. 3: 69-74. This article describes using assessment in the science classroom to improve both student learning and teaching; the bulk of the article is an annotated, selective bibliography of suggested resources to help instructors incorporate assessment into their classrooms more productively.

Treisman, 1992, Studying students study calculus: A look at the lives of minority mathematics students in college. The Coll. Math. J. 23, 362-372. A mathematics department researched issues surrounding minority student performance in a college introductory calculus course. Their study indicated that the low performance of black students compared to white or Asian American students was due to the lack of working in groups by the black students (compared to other students) and not to ability, lack of motivation, inadequate academic preparation or lack of family support. Treisman designed a highly successful program that involved student teamwork, including teaching the students how to work in groups.

Wenzel, 2000, Cooperative Student Activities as Learning Devices Analytical Chemistry v72 p293A-296A. Students who work in cooperative groups with other students are more motivated and successful, especially with regard to reasoning and critical thinking skills than those that do not.

Williamson and Rowe, 2002, Group Problem-Solving versus Lecture in College-Level Quantitative Analysis: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly Journal of Chemical Education v79 no9 p1131-1134. This study compares a section of a chemistry course taught using traditional lecture methods and another in which student groups solve problems together.

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