Initial Publication Date: April 15, 2020

Resources and References About Geoheritage

International Resources Related to Geoheritage

Geoheritage Resources in the United States

Planning and Developing Geoheritage Sites

  • Bailey, H., & Hill, W. 2010. The Future of North American Geoparks. The George Wright Forum, 27(1), 52-59.
  • Brilha, J., 2013. Principles of a national geoheritage program. Presentation at America's Geologic Heritage Invitational Workshop, Denver, CO.
  • Brilha, J., 2016. Inventory and quantitative assessment of geosites and geodiversity sites: a review. Geoheritage 8.2, p. 119-134.
  • Brilha, J., 2018. Geoheritage: Inventories and evaluation. In Geoheritage (pp. 69-85). Elsevier.
  • Calder, J. H., 2014. Establishing a Geoheritage List for Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, Report ME 2014-001.
  • Calnan, R., Brady, S.R., and Hill, W., 2010.Geoparks: Creating a Vision for North America. The George Wright Forum 27(1): 40-45.
  • de Lima, F. F., Brilha, J. B., and Salamuni, E., 2010, Inventorying geological heritage in large territories: a methodological proposal applied to Brazil: Geoheritage, v. 2, no. 3-4, p. 91-99.
  • Joyce, E.B., 2010. Australia's geoheritage: history of study, a new inventory of geosites and applications to geotourism and geoparks. Geoheritage, 2(1-2), 39-56.
  • Lima F.F., Brilha J.B., Salamuni E., 2010. Inventorying geological heritage in large territories: a methodological proposal applied to Brazil. Geoheritage 2(3"4):91"9
  • Poiraud, A., Chevalier, M., Claeyssen, B., Biron, P.E. and Joly, B., 2016. From geoheritage inventory to territorial planning tool in the Vercors massif (French Alps): Contribution of statistical and expert cross approaches. Applied Geography, 71, pp.69-82.
  • Reynard, E., & Brilha, J. (Eds.), 2017. Geoheritage: Assessment, Protection, and Management. Elsevier. 

Geodiversity and Geoconservation

  • Burek, C. V., & Prosser, C. D. (Eds.). 2008. The history of geoconservation. Geological Society of London.
  • Burek, C., 2012. The role of LGAPs (Local Geodiversity Action Plans) and Welsh RIGS as local drivers for geoconservation within geotourism in Wales. Geoheritage, 4(1-2), 45-63.
  • Chan, M. A., and Godsey, H. S., 2016, Lake Bonneville geosites in the urban landscape: Potential loss of geological heritage, Developments in Earth Surface Processes, Volume 20, Elsevier, p. 617-633.
  • Chan, M.A., & Kamola, D.L., 2017. Classic Geologic Outcrops: Preservation and Future Accessibility. GSA Today, 27(11).
  • Gray, M. 2004. Geodiversity: valuing and conserving abiotic nature. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Gray, M., 2005, Geodiversity and Geoconservation: what, why, and how? In The George Wright Forum (Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 4-12). George Wright Society.
  • Henriques M.H., Pena dos Reis R., Brilha J., Mota T.S., 2011 Geoconservation as an emerging geoscience. Geoheritage 3(2):117"128
  • Nowlan, G., Bobrowsky, P., & Clague, J., 2010, Protection of Geological Heritage: A North American Perspective on Geoparks: The George Wright Forum, v. 27, no. 1, p. 46-51.


  • Outdoor Industry Association--The Outdoor Recreation Economy
  • Dowling, R. K., & Newsome, D. (Eds.). 2006. Geotourism. Routledge.
  • Farsani, N. T., Coelho, C., & Costa, C., 2011. Geoparks and geotourism: new approaches to sustainability for the 21st century. Universal-Publishers.
  • Gordon, J., 2018. Geoheritage, geotourism and the cultural landscape: Enhancing the visitor experience and promoting geoconservation. Geosciences, 8(4), p.136.
  • Hose, T.A., 2006. Geotourism and interpretation. Geotourism, 2006, pp.221-241.
  • Hose, T.A., 2012. 3G's for modern geotourism. Geoheritage, 4(1-2), 7-24.
  • U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Outdoor Recreation

K-12 Education (and Teacher Training)

  • Azman, N., Halim, S.A., Liu, O.P., Saidin, S. and Komoo, I., 2010. Public education in heritage conservation for geopark community. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 7, pp.504-511.
  • Bybee, R.W., 2014. NGSS and the next generation of science teachers. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 25(2), pp.211-221.
  • Louv, R., 2008. Last child in the woods: Saving our children from nature-deficit disorder. Algonquin books.
  • National Research Council. 2013. [link 'Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States']. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press

Informal Science Education

Place-Based Learning and Learning in the Field

  • DeFelice, A., Adams, J. D., Branco, B., & Pieroni, P., 2014. Engaging underrepresented high school students in an urban environmental and geoscience place-based curriculum. Journal of Geoscience Education, 62(1), 49-60.
  • Jolley, A., Kennedy, B. M., Brogt, E., Hampton, S. J., and Fraser, L., 2018, Are we there yet? Sense of place and the student experience on roadside and situated geology field trips: Geosphere, v. 14, no. 2, p. 651-667.
  • Kern, E.L. and Carpenter, J.R., 1984. Enhancement of student values, interests and attitudes in earth science through a field-oriented approach. Journal of Geological Education, 32(5), 299-305.
  • Mogk, D.W., 2004. Access to field sites: A growing concern for geoscience education. Geol. Soc. Amer. Ann. Meeting Progr. w. Abstracts, Denver.
  • Mogk, D.W., 2015. Geoheritage sites: essential for geoscience education, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Vol. 47, No. 7, p.310
  • Mogk, D.W., & Goodwin, C. 2012. Learning in the field: Synthesis of research on thinking and learning in the geosciences. Geological Society of America Special Papers, 486, 131-163.
  • Petcovic, H.L., Stokes, A. and Caulkins, J.L., 2014. Geoscientists' perceptions of the value of undergraduate field education. GSA Today, 24(7), pp.4-10.
  • Whitmeyer, S.J., Mogk, D.W. and Pyle, E.J. eds., 2009. Field geology education: Historical perspectives and modern approaches (Vol. 461). Geological Society of America.

Geoheritage, Indigenous and Under-represented People

  • Riggs, E.M., 2005. Field‐based education and indigenous knowledge: Essential components of geoscience education for Native American communities. Science Education, 89(2), pp.296-313.
  • Semken, S., 2005a. Sense of place and place-based introductory geoscience teaching for American Indian and Alaska Native undergraduates. Journal of Geoscience Education, 53(2), 149-157.
  • Semken, S., 2005b. American Indian Sacred Places as Geoheritage Resources. In Geological Society of America Annual Meeting.
  • Semken, S., Freeman, C.B., Watts, N.B., Neakrase, J.J., Dial, R.E. and Baker, D.R., 2009. Factors that influence sense of place as a learning outcome and assessment measure of place-based geoscience teaching. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 13(2).

Outreach and Dissemination

  • American Geosciences Institute, Our Shared Geoheritage (Earth Week Theme 2016)
  • Edwards, W. D., 2009. Using the geology of your neighbourhood and city for geoscience outreach. Geoscience Canada, 36(3).

Geohheritage, Professional Standards, Ethics

  • Bureau of Land Management, Collecting Policies
  • Butler, R., 2015. Destructive sampling ethics. Nature Geoscience, 8(11), 817.
  • Druguet, E., Passchier, C. W., Pennacchioni, G., and Carreras, J., 2013, Geoethical education: A critical issue for geoconservation: Episodes, v. 36, no. 1, p. 11-18.
  • Leopold, A., 1949. A Sand County almanac and sketches here and there. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Mansur, K.L., Ponciano, L.C. and Castro, A.R.D., 2017. Contributions to a Brazilian Code of Conduct for Fieldwork in Geology: an approach based on Geoconservation and Geoethics. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 89(1), pp.431-444.
  • Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Guidelines from the Ethics Committee 

Examples of Geoheritage Sites Being Developed in the United States

National Park Service

Geoheritage in Michigan

Keweenaw Geoheritage--Developed by Bill Rose, Erika Vye and colleagues at Michigan Tech. "This website is aimed at communicating the strong Geoheritage of the western UP, including the Keweenaw Peninsula and Isle Royale. We aim to reach any reader, and to help them understand:

Geoheritage in West Virginia

The Appalachian Geopark is in planning stages led by Dr. Robert Burns, West Virginia University, and Dr. Jasmine Moreira, Ponta Grossa State University, Praça Santos Andrade, s/n - Ponta Grossa - PR, Brazil. See descriptions at:

The Montana Geoheritage Project Components

We have developed three sets of web-based resources to encourage you to experience the natural wonders of Montana:

  • MT Geoheritage Sites module--use this website as a guide to plan your next vacation to the Augusta-Choteau area of the Rocky Mountain Front in Montana. This website provides an introduction to the geographic setting, bedrock geology (stratigraphy and structural geology), paleontology (famous fossil site at Egg Mountain, but also including invertebrate and mammalian paleontology, surficial geology (glaciated landscapes, river systems), climate and climate change, agriculture, topical issues (e.g., energy exploration, wilderness areas), and cultural heritage (the writings of Ivan Doig connected to this landscape; heritage of the Tribal Nations who traditionally inhabited this area).
  • MT Road Logs module: we've selected ~50 of our favorite road logs that are used as guides to explore a variety of geologic features; these road logs are typically used by professional geologists on field trips, as guides to geologic course field trips and field camps, but they are also accessible to the interested public.
  • MT Trail Guides module--We developed step-by-step guides to popular hiking trails in the Bozeman area. Plan to take a day hike to; 1) Sacagawea Peak and walk through layers of sedimentary rocks that include diverse invertebrate fossils (algal mounds, corals, brachiopods and more), geologic structures that formed through Laramide and Sevier style deformation, and glacially sculpted landscapes that continue to evolve through modern surficial processes; 2) Hyalite Peak, where you will walk through volcanic deposits very similar to modern day Mount St. Helens eruption; and 3) Bear Basin near Big Sky, where you will cross the range boundary Spanish Peaks fault into the deep crustal rocks (from depths as much as 30 km/20 miles!) and that are among the oldest rocks on the North American continent dating back to 3.5 billion years!
  • Montana Dinosaur Trail, Montana Department of Commerce
  • Mogk, D.W., Lageson, D.R., Bowen, D., Devaney, S., Freimuth, W., and Rapkoch, M., 2018. The Montana Geoheritage Project, Resources for Future Generations, Vancouver, BC.