References and Resources
- Blosser, P. (1992) . Using Cooperative Learning in Science Education. ERIC CSMEE Bulletin 92-1.
This review discusses the definition of cooperative learning, applications for science classrooms, and research on its effectiveness.
- Giraud, G. (1997). Cooperative Learning and Statistics Instruction. Journal of Statistics Education, 5(3).
This study examined the relative effects of cooperative vs. lecture methods of instruction.
- Herreid, C. (1998) . Why Isn't Cooperative Learning Used to Teach Science? Bioscience v58 no7 p553-559.
This article summarizes reasons that science lecturers are reluctant to incorporate cooperative learning into their classes, research that supports its effectiveness, and advice to implement it.
- Johnson, D.W. and R.T. Johnson (1989) . Cooperation and Competition: Theory and Research. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company
This book summarizes over 750+ studies on the issues surrounding use of collaborative learning in the classroom.
- Johnson, D.W., R.T. Johnson, and K.A. Smith (1991) . Active learning: Cooperation in the college classroom. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company
This book contains lots of interesting material about the effects of having students work in groups, mostly in the form of increased motivation and performance in college classes.
- D.W. Johnson, R.T. Johnson, and E. Johnson Holubec (1998) . Cooperation in the Classroom. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company.
This handbook for cooperative learning deals with specifics on how to use it at the level of the classroom and the school.
- D.W. Johnson, R.T. Johnson, K.A. Smith (1998) . Cooperative Learning Returns to College: What Evidence Is There that it Works? Change July/August, p27-35
This review of 168 studies of cooperative learning over 73 years concludes that cooperative learning is almost 150% as effective as individual or competitive learning in terms of academic achievement.
- D.B. Kaufman, R.M. Felder, H.Fuller (1999) . Peer Ratings in Cooperative Learning Teams. Annual American Society for Engineering Education Meeting Proceedings of the 1999 Annual ASEE Meeting, Session 1430.
This article includes a peer-rating form used to assess participation on group projects by the participants. Self-ratings and test grades correlated with peer ratings.
- Keeler, C.M. and R.K. Steinhorst (1994). Cooperative learning in statistics. Teaching Statistics, 16(3), 81-84
The formal use of cooperative learning techniques developed originally in primary and secondary education proved effective in improving student performance and retention in a college freshman level statistics course.
- Keeler, C.M. and R.K. Steinhorst (1995). Using small groups to promote active learning in the introductory statistics course: A report from the field']. Journal of Statistics Education, 3(2).
Over several semesters, a traditional lecture approach was changed to include cooperative learning. Working in cooperative groups resulted in higher final scores in two experimental sections than in a comparison course section.
- King, A. (1993) . From Sage on the Stage to Guide on the Side. College Teaching 41(1), p. 30-35.
This article discusses several active-learning techniques that instructors can use to help students construct knowledge.
- Lord, T.R. (2001) . 101 Reasons for Using Cooperative Learning in Biology Teaching. The American Biology Teacher 63(1) p. 30-38.
This article discusses reasons to use cooperative learning to teach science with numerous descriptions from research on learning and from personal experience.
- Magel, R.C. (1998). Using cooperative learning in a large introductory statistics class. Journal of Statistics Education, 6(3).
This article discusses one active learning technique, cooperative learning, that can be used in large classes.
- Paulson, D.R. (1999) . Active Learning and Cooperative Learning in the Organic Chemistry Lecture Class. Journal of Chemical Education 76(8) p. 1136-1140.
When the author changed his organic chemistry sequence from a lecture to an active-learning class with group projects, the number of students passing the year-long sequence doubled.
- Savarese, M. (1988) . Collaborative learning in an upper-division university geobiology course. Journal of Geoscience Education v46 p61-66.
The paleontology course described in this article has fully half of the lecture time devoted to group projects: reviewing original literature, debating issues, working with data, and solving problems.
- Slavin, R.E. (1991) . Student Team Learning: A Practical Guide to Cooperative Learning (3rd Edition). National Education Association Washington DC.
This book describes five types of cooperative learning and gives details on how to use them and on research that shows how effective they are.
- Tewksbury, B.J. (1995) . Specific strategies for using the jigsaw technique for working in groups in non-lecture-based courses. Journal of Geological Education v 43, p 322-326.
- Wenzel, T. (2000) . Cooperative Student Activities as Learning Devices. Analytical Chemistry v72 p293A-296A.
Students who work in cooperative groups with other students are more motivated and successful, especially with regard to reasoning and critical thinking skills than those that do not.
- Williamson, V.M and M.W. Rowe (2002) . Group Problem-Solving versus Lecture in College-Level Quantitative Analysis: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. Journal of Chemical Education 79(9) p. 1131-1134.
This study compares a section of a chemistry course taught using traditional lecture methods and another in which student groups solve problems together.