Antarctica and Neogene Global Climate Change
This exercise set introduces students to Antarctica paleoclimatology in the Neogene. Students investigate geographic, glacial, and geologic data from Antarctica and apply geologic reasoning to propose the best location to drill cores to recover a target stratigraphic interval of paleoclimatic significance.
Mid to upper level undergraduate courses in sedimentology, stratigraphy, climate change, historical geology, and paleoclimatology.
Skills and concepts that students must have mastered
How the activity is situated in the course
It is a 3-part exercise sequence. This has been used in a sedimentology-stratigraphy course. Some parts can be assigned as homework as pre-class assignments. This exercise can stand alone, but also sets the stage for a more detailed investigation of two sediment cores retrieved from the floor of McMurdo Sound by the Antarctic Geologic Drilling Project (ANDRILL) in 2006 and 2007.
Content/concepts goals for this activity
Objectives: After completing this exercise students should be able to:
- Describe general global climate conditions during the Cenozoic.
- Assess the quality and quantity of data on Cenozoic climate history from the Antarctic region; for example, describe the stratigraphic completeness and spatial distribution of sampling sites for the Neogene in and around Antarctica.
- Interpret simple geologic maps and cross sections, and describe the geology, glaciology, and geography of the Ross Sea region of Antarctica.
- Integrate data to propose selected drill sites to meet scientific objectives and logistical and cost
Higher order thinking skills goals for this activity
Other skills goals for this activity
Description of the activity/assignment
and select two drill sites.
This exercise also sets the stage for evaluating the two sediment cores retrieved from the floor of McMurdo Sound by the Antarctic Geologic Drilling Project (ANDRILL) in 2006 and 2007. Evaluation of the ANDRILL core is undertaken in exercise unit titled "Interpreting Antarctic Sediment Cores".
Determining whether students have met the goals
- Explain how the oxygen isotope curve is used to interpret past global climates.
- Describe the geology, glaciology, and geography of the Ross Sea region of Antarctica.
- How is the geology, geography and climate different in Antartica than where you live?
- In general, would a thinner or thicker sedimentary sequence provide a more complete record of geologic history of a region? Why?
- Summarize the pros and cons of using the existing drillcore databases for global climate interpretations/Antarctic ice volume.
- Summarize what we think we know (i.e., the paradigm of thought) about the history of ice in Antarctica, and how we know it.
- What is the rationale for obtaining a new core that captures the Neogene Antarctica sedimentary sequences?
- Where would you recommend scientists obtain this new core and why?
Teaching materials and tips
- Student Exercise Set: The student activity can be downloaded from: http://www.wiley.com/legacy/wileychi/stjohn/sample_chapters.html select Chapter 11, Antarctic and Neogene Global Climate Change.
- Instructor Notes: See the pdf file Instructor Tips Ch 11 (Acrobat (PDF) 622kB Jul23 15). In addition go to: http://www.wiley.com/legacy/wileychi/stjohn/supplementary.html for suggested supplemental materials (Chapter 11).
- Solution Set: A pdf file that contains a detailed answer key and additional suggestions for instructors can be obtained by emailing Kristen St. John (firstname.lastname@example.org).
For other open access chapters from this book go to: http://www.wiley.com/legacy/wileychi/stjohn/sample_chapters.html.
References used in constructing this exercise include:
ANDRILL Science Team, 2007, Studies from the ANDRILL, McMurdo Ice Shelf project, Antarctica,Initial Science Report on AND-1B. Terra Antarctica, vol. 14, No. 3, 328 p.
Barker, P.F., Kennett, J.P., et al., 1990. Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 113: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program). doi:10.2973/odp.proc.sr.113.1990
Barrett, P.J. (Ed.), 1986. Antarctic Cenozoic history from the MSSTS-1 drillhole, McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. NZ DSIR Bulletin, v. 237, 174 p. Science Information Publishing Center, Wellington, New Zealand.
Barrett, P.J. (Ed.), 1989. Antarctic Cenozoic history from the CIROS-1 drillhole. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial research Bulletin 245, 254 pp.
Barron, J., Larsen, B., et al., 1991. Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 119: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program). doi:10.2973/odp.proc.sr.119.1991
Cape Roberts Science Team, 1998a, Summary Results from CRP-1, Cape Roberts Project,Antarctica, Terra Antarctica, vol. 5, 138 p.
Cape Roberts Science Team, 1998b, Initial Report on CRP-3, Terra Antarctica, vol. 5, 187 p.
Cape Roberts Science Team, 1999, Studies from the Cape Roberts Project, Ross Sea, Antarctica – Initial Report on CRP-2/2A, Terra Antarctica, vol. 6, 173 p., with supplement.
Cape Roberts Science Team, 2000, Studies from the Cape Roberts Project, Ross Sea, Antarctica– Initial Report on CRP-3, Terra Antarctica, vol. 7, 209 p., with supplement.
Clark, P.U., Pisias, N.G., Stocker, T.F., and Weaver, A.J., 2002. The role of the thermohaline circulation in abrupt climate change. Nature, 415, p.863-869.
Davey, F.J., Barrett, P.J., Cita, M.B., Van der Meer,J.J.M., Tessensohn,F., Thomson, M.R.A., Webb, P.N., and Woolfe, K.J., 2001. Drilling for Antarctic Cenozoic Climate and Tectonic History at Cape Roberts, Southwestern Ross Sea, EOS, 82, p. 585 & 589-590. https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/01EO00339
Domack, E.W., Jull, A.J.T., and Nakao, S., 1991. Advance of East Antarctic outlet glaciers during the Hypsithermal; implications for the volume state of the Antarctic ice sheet under global warming. Geology, v. 19; no. 11; p. 1059-1062.
DVDP Bulletin Series prepared at the Dept. of Geology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb Illinois. (accessed 2008-07-15)
Hambrey, M.J., and McKelvey, 2000. Major Neogene fluctuations of the East Antarctic ice sheet: Stratigraphic evidence from the Lambert Glacier region. Geology, v. 28, no. 10, p. 887-890.
Hambrey, M.J., Webb, P/-N., Harwood, D.M., et al., 2003. Neogene glacial record from the Sirius Group of the Shackleton Glacier region, central Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica.
Geological Society of America Bulletin, 115 (8), 994–1015.
Hambrey, M.J., and Hubbard, B. The Antarctic Ice Sheet:
Harwood, D.M., Florindo, F., Talarico, F., et al., 2008–2009. Background to the ANDRILL Southern McMurdo Sound Project, Antarctica," from Studies from the ANDRILL, Southern McMurdo Sound Project, Antarctica, Initial Science Report on AND-2A 15:1. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/andrillrespub/15/
Harwood, D.M., Florindo,F., Levy, R.H., Fielding, C.R., Pekar, S.F., Speece, M.A., and SMS Science Team, 2005, ANDRILL Southern McMurdo Sound Scientific Prospectus, ANDRILL Contribution 5, University of Nebraska – Lincoln, 29p. https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1006&context=andrillinfo (Accessed 2008-07-15)
Harwood, D.M., Lacy, L., and Levy, R.H., (eds.), 2002. Future Antarctic Margin Drilling: Developing a Science Program Plan for McMurdo Sound. ANDRILL Contribution 1, University of Nebraska - Lincoln. Available at https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1002&context=andrillrespub https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1002&context=andrillrespub] (Accessed 2008-07-15)
Kennett, J.P., 1977. Cenozoic Evolution of Antarctic Glaciation, the circum-Antarctic ocean, and their impact on global paleoceanography. Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 82, p.3843-3860.
Kennett, J.P., 1978. The development of planktonic biogeography in the Southern Ocean during the Cenozoic. Marine Micropaleontology, vol. 3, p. 301-345.
Kennett, J.P., and Shackleton, N.J., 1976, Oxygen isotopic evidence for the development of the psychrosphere 38 Myr ago. Nature, vol. 260, no. 5551, p 513-515.
Kennett, J.P., and Shackleton, N.J., 1976, Critical development in evolution of deep-sea waters 38 m.y. ago; oxygen isotopic evidence from deep-sea sediments. EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, vol. 57, no. 4, p. 256.
Kyle, P.R., & Cole, J.W., 1974. Structural Control of volcanism in the McMurdo Volcanic Group, Antarctica. Bulletin of Volcanology, vol. 38, p. 16-25.
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Naish, T., Powell,R., Barrett, P., Horgan, H., Dunbar, G., Wilson, G., Levy, R., Robinson, N., Carter, L., Pyne, A., Bannister, S., Balfour, N., Damaske, D., Henrys, S., Kyle, P., and Wilson, T., ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Scientific Prospectus, ANDRILL Contribution 4,
University of Nebraska – Lincoln, 29p. https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1007&context=andrillinfo (Accessed 2008-07-15)
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Webb, P.N., 1990. The Cenozoic history of Antarctica and its global impact. Antarctic Science, v.2, p. 3-21.
Wise, S. W., Jr., Schlich, R., et al., 1992. Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 120: College Station/TX (Ocean Drilling Program). doi:10.2973/odp.proc.sr.120.1992 http://www-odp.tamu.edu/publications/120_SR/120TOC.HTM
Zachos, J., Pagani, M., Sloan,L., Thomas, E., Billups, K, 2001. Trends, Rhythyms, and Aberrations in Global Climate 65Ma to Present. Science, v.292, p.686-693.
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