Paleoecological exercise: Testing competition among Paleozoic brachiopods
David C Kendrick
Hobart & Wm Smith Colleges
This activity has benefited from input from faculty educators beyond the author through a review and suggestion process.
This review took place as a part of a faculty professional development workshop where groups of faculty reviewed each others' activities and offered feedback and ideas for improvements. To learn more about the process On the Cutting Edge uses for activity review, see http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/review.html.
This page first made public: Jun 9, 2009
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This lab activity tests the hypothesis that competition has resulted in niche partitioning among four species of brachiopods.
This is an upper-division course for geology majors and minors, however, interested students from all disciplines who have satisfied the prerequisites are welcome. The prerequisite is the introductory physical geology course; having the earth history course is desirable but not required. The course has a required three-hour laboratory and two weekend field trips.
Skills and concepts that students must have mastered
1. Basic ecological concepts like competition and niche partitioning
2. Basic brachiopod biology and ecology (i.e. things like what is the commissure, they are filter feeders, what resources are limiting)
3. Basic algebra
4. Basic statistics
How the activity is situated in the course
This is a stand-alone exercise, but dovetails well with lecture units on paleoecology, competition, and testing hypotheses, as well as part of continuing practice on synthesizing results and summarizing material in abstract form.
Content/concepts goals for this activity
Higher order thinking skills goals for this activity
Other skills goals for this activity
statistical calculations and testing
computer spreadsheet use
Description of the activity/assignment
Students use the procedure outlined by Casey Hermoyian and colleagues (2002) to test whether competition played a role in structuring a strophomenid brachiopod community in the Middle Devonian Onondaga limestone of western New York. It is not necessary to use these particular brachiopods; brachs from other localities, ages, and species could work, too, if chosen well. Students sort through a collection of brachiopods, separating them into groups of species defined by mutual agreement. They then use measurements of the commissure length to test two predictions made by Robert MacArthur's (1972) theory of how Hutchinson's (1959) niche partitioning would be evidenced: nonoverlapping resource use among former competitors but with very little distance between them. Students graph results, calculate ratio sums of their measurements and z statistics to test whether their results are significant. Finally, students prepare a conference-type abstract based on their results. The activity gives students practice in observing differences among groups, measurement, graphing, statistical calculation, synthesizing results, and clear presentation of their synthesis. Students also practice group and individual work in this exercise.
Determining whether students have met the goals
Evaluation is based on accurate completion of calculations,testing of results, and the composition of their abstract. The abstract, in particular, shows whether students have fully grasped the concepts and understand their results.
More information about assessment tools and techniques.
Download teaching materials and tips
Hermoyian, C. S., L. R. Leighton, and P. Kaplan. 2002. Testing the role of competition in fossil communities using limiting similarity. Geology 30: 15-18.
Hutchinson, G. E. 1959. Homage to Santa Rosalita. American Naturalist 93: 145-159.
MacArthur, R. H. 1972. Geographical Ecology. Princeton University Press. Princeton, N.J. 269 p.