Measuring Dinosaur Speed from Trackways
J Bret Bennington
This activity has benefited from input from faculty educators beyond the author through a review and suggestion process.
This review took place as a part of a faculty professional development workshop where groups of faculty reviewed each others' activities and offered feedback and ideas for improvements. To learn more about the process On the Cutting Edge uses for activity review, see http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/review.html.
This page first made public: Jun 4, 2009
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This activity demonstrates how measurements taken from fossil trackways can be used to estimate the speed at which extinct animals were moving when they made the trackways, providing students the opportunity to collect and analyze quantitative data.
Undergraduate elective natural science course "Dinosaurs and the Mesozoic World".
Undergraduate elective upper level geology course on Paleontology.
Skills and concepts that students must have mastered
Requires basic math and spreadsheet skills.
How the activity is situated in the course
Stand alone exercise.
Content/concepts goals for this activity
Biomechanical analysis of speeds of extinct organisms from trackway fossils.
Higher order thinking skills goals for this activity
Evaluation of published mathematical model using experimental data collected by students.
Other skills goals for this activity
Basic collection and organization of quantitative data using spreadsheets.
Working as a group to collect data.
Basic computational skills - algebraic manipulation and unit conversions.
Using both graphical and formula-based methods to analyze data.
Analysis of sources of error in a quantitative analysis.
Description of the activity/assignment
By measuring the spacing of fossil footprints it is possible to estimate the speed of the trackmaker, but only after making several assumptions based on footprint size and the behavior of a wide range of living animals. A widely applied method for estimating speed from trackways was developed through the research of R. McNeill Alexander, an expert in biomechanics. This lab is a group exercise designed to lead students step-by-step through the methods and principles involved in estimating speed of movement from trackway data using Alexander's method. First students test the method on humans to see how accurate it is, and then they apply it to measurements taken from a variety of dinosaur trackways. This activity involves having students collect speed and footprint data on subjects while they are running and walking. The footprint data are analyzed and the speed estimates are compared to the actual measured speeds. Students then collect trackway measurements from published illustrations of dinosaur trackways to estimate dinosaur speeds. Students calculate the percent error for their experimental estimates and use this to interpret the results obtained from dinosaur trackways. Spreadsheets may be used to record and carry out the calculations in the analysis. Students are asked to discuss the significance of their results to ongoing debates over the physical capabilities of dinosaurs.
Determining whether students have met the goals
Lab calculations and question responses are graded.
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