Cutting Edge > Courses > Oceanography > Teaching Activities > Tsunami and the Depth of the Ocean

Tsunami and the Depth of the Ocean

Martin B. Farley, University of North Carolina at Pembroke
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This page first made public: May 30, 2013


An inquiry approach to using the celerity (=velocity) of a tsunami to measure the depth of the ocean along its path. Tsunami are shallow-water waves, because their wavelengths are so long relative to ocean depth. Shallow-water wave celerity depends on ocean depth. Students reason this out. They then determine the distance of the path of the tsunami from the epicenter of the 1964 Alaska Good Friday earthquake tsunami to various locations, use tsunami arrival times to calculate the velocity, and re-arrange the shallow-water celerity equation to calculate depth. Students evaluate the geographic distribution of water depths.



Introductory Oceanography course. The official audience up to last fall has been Science Education majors with an assortment of students from other majors, because until then we had no undergraduate major. For various reasons, most students taking the class are juniors/seniors.

Skills and concepts that students must have mastered

How the activity is situated in the course

As a classroom lab in a sequence of instruction that includes lectures and labs on waves and their characteristics (including labs on shallow and deep water wave celerity and seiches)


Content/concepts goals for this activity

Higher order thinking skills goals for this activity

Other skills goals for this activity

Description and Teaching Materials

Teaching Notes and Tips

See Instructor notes.

NOAA tsunami datasets.xlsx contains key data for all localities with arrival times in the NOAA tsunami database for the 1964 Alaska, 2010 Chile, and 2011 Japan tsunami. This gets around the glitch in extracting data from the Web described in my documents. These localities would allow you to add conveniently other locations to the activity.


Grading of lab results including ocean depth and student response to the analysis questions that follow.

I have an exam question based on this lab that I use to see if students retain understanding of the approach. See instructor notes.

References and Resources

Most tsunami data are from National Geophysical Data Center / (NGDC/WDS) Global Historical Tsunami Database, Boulder, CO, USA. (Available at

See Warning in instructor notes for current (as of May 17, 2013) limitations of extracting data from this database.

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