Unit 6: Systems Thinking Synthesis
These materials have been reviewed for their alignment with the Next Generation Science Standards as detailed below. Visit InTeGrate and the NGSS to learn more.
OverviewStudents quiz each other on course material and then find authentic (and often creative) connections between seemingly disparate topics in the course. This approach challenges students to use holistic thinking when reviewing, and can be readily customized for any course.
Science and Engineering Practices
Engaging in Argument from Evidence: Compare and critique two arguments on the same topic and analyze whether they emphasize similar or different evidence and/or interpretations of facts. MS-P7.1:
Cross Cutting Concepts
Systems and System Models: Models are limited in that they only represent certain aspects of the system under study. MS-C4.3:
Systems and System Models: Systems may interact with other systems; they may have sub-systems and be a part of larger complex systems. MS-C4.1:
Systems and System Models: Models can be used to represent systems and their interactions—such as inputs, processes and outputs—and energy, matter, and information flows within systems. MS-C4.2:
Systems and System Models: Models can be used to predict the behavior of a system, but these predictions have limited precision and reliability due to the assumptions and approximations inherent in models. HS-C4.4:
Systems and System Models: Models (e.g., physical, mathematical, computer models) can be used to simulate systems and interactions—including energy, matter, and information flows—within and between systems at different scales. HS-C4.3:
This material was developed and reviewed through the InTeGrate curricular materials development process. This rigorous, structured process includes:
- team-based development to ensure materials are appropriate across multiple educational settings.
- multiple iterative reviews and feedback cycles through the course of material development with input to the authoring team from both project editors and an external assessment team.
- real in-class testing of materials in at least 3 institutions with external review of student assessment data.
- multiple reviews to ensure the materials meet the InTeGrate materials rubric which codifies best practices in curricular development, student assessment and pedagogic techniques.
- review by external experts for accuracy of the science content.
This activity was selected for the On the Cutting Edge Exemplary Teaching Collection
Resources in this top level collection a) must have scored Exemplary or Very Good in all five review categories, and must also rate as “Exemplary” in at least three of the five categories. The five categories included in the peer review process are
- Scientific Accuracy
- Alignment of Learning Goals, Activities, and Assessments
- Pedagogic Effectiveness
- Robustness (usability and dependability of all components)
- Completeness of the ActivitySheet web page
For more information about the peer review process itself, please see http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/review.html.
This page first made public: Oct 24, 2016
Context for Use
Description and Teaching Materials
Preparation: The instructor should start by generating a list of approximately 10 (or more) review-type questions that represent the breath of material covered. To each question attach a related process, overarching theme, or syllabus topic. Use the list of questions and associated topics to replace the questions and topics in the student handout Student Handout for Synthesis Excercise (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 79kB Sep14 16) or PDF version (Acrobat (PDF) 77kB Sep14 16). The example is from an oceanography course, and follows the course syllabus closely Sample syllabus from Oceanography Course (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 195kB Jul17 15).
Part 1. Review and discussion connections in pairs. (20–40 min)
- Each student in the class receives a sheet with an instructor-generated question and related topic Student Handout for Synthesis Excercise (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 79kB Sep14 16) or PDF version (Acrobat (PDF) 77kB Sep14 16) .
- Review the directions at the top (3–5 min) and model how to do the exercise in pairs (Student A and Student B), following the instructions on the sheet.
Student A. Question: What drives convection in the (a) mantle, (b) ocean, and (c) atmosphere? Topic: convection.
Student B. Question: Where do the major dissolved components of seawater come from, and how do we know the salinity of the ocean has been relatively stable over the last 1.5 Ga? Topic: residence time.
1. Pose the question on your sheet to your partner. Listen to the answer and give oral feedback. Nothing is written.
2. Hear your partner's question, give your best answer, and get feedback. Nothing is written.
3. Work together to find a connection between the topics listed at the top of each of your sheets (not the specific questions), and write out connections on your own sheet.
4. Find a new partner and go back to Step 1.
- The instructor can use a bell or timer (or just an oral warning) to tell students when to rotate to a new partner. The instructor should give the first pairing about 7 minutes. Then, 5 minutes thereafter. In a small class, the instructor can move through all the groups in the first round or two answering questions about the process. If the class is struggling, an instructor could stop the group after the first pairing for any questions.
- After 3–5 rounds of pairings for as much time is available (minimum of 20 to maximum of 40 minutes), the instructor stops the group.
Part 2. Group discussion. (10 min)
Instructor poses the question on the board:
What are two topics you thought were especially difficult to connect?
- The instructor writes the topics on the board and students volunteer creative connections, which are also written on the board.
- After about three pairs, the instructor challenges the class to find a topic from the course that no one else can convincingly connect to the topics already listed. These new topics are listed on the board and students volunteer connections.
Part 3. Review advice. (5 min or homework, optional)
At the end of class, the instructor poses two to three challenges to students as they review course material, or hands out this homework Synthesis Exercise Reflection (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 45kB Sep14 16) or PDF version (Acrobat (PDF) 25kB Sep14 16):
- Search for themes that connect many topics (e.g., density, drivers of ocean change, etc.)
- Which of the topics you listed either cannot be influenced by society nor influence society in any way?
Short answer: none.
Teaching Notes and Tips
Modeling the exercise with a TA or student may clarify many of the questions that arise. For the first round, the instructor and TA(s), if available, should briefly check in with as many groups as possible to make sure they understand what to do.
When 5 minutes remain for Part 1, the instructor can call out "last pairing" and direct students who finish before 5 minutes to the full list of questions and topics on the back of their sheet. Students generally proceed quickly to quietly reading this study guide, which makes it easier to call time for the group discussion.
For large classes, multiple students will get the same sheet, but as long as there are about 10 unique sheets, students should not have trouble finding 3–6 different pairings.
Alternative approach: either in class (before the Synthesis class) or as homework, have students write their own review questions. Use the student-generated questions to generate the student handouts.
Parts 2 and 3.
For Part 2 , students can be encouraged take out their syllabus to locate additional topics quickly. Parts 2 and 3 can be combined into a single instructor-led discussion. An instructor can draw connections between topics quickly and point out additional connections as the diagram is made, and encourage students to continue part of their review by making their own diagram in this fashion.
This unit is assessed with a broad synthesis question on a final exam or as a take-home writing assignment. As an exam question, completion time is about 20 minutes. In the question below substitute"ocean" for "Earth" or "climate" or other more relevant term for the course.
Imagine it is some months from now and you have applied for a job as an ocean science writer for a new popular science magazine called Our Changing Ocean. In the interview, the editor asks you:
"People say 'everything is connected,' but I rarely get specific examples. Will you convince me of the connectedness and complexity of the ocean?"
Write what you would say in response by picking any three seemingly unrelated concepts from this course and relating them in the the context of human interaction with the ocean. Be sure to use systems thinking language and specific examples.
Topics seemingly unrelated?
- 0=not at all
- 1=somewhat; e.g., two of the topics presented in class the same day
- 2=yes; e.g., sperm whales, forest fires in Minnesota, and Arctic sea ice extent
Accuracy (of descriptions and connections)?
- 0=not at all
- 1=somewhat; e.g., more than one minor incorrect detail
- 0=not at all
- 1=somewhat; e.g., some connections silly or superficial
- 2=yes; using a diagram or words
Connections show complexity?
- 0=not at all
- 1=somewhat; e.g., incomplete understanding of feedback
- 2=yes; using a diagram or words
Relevant to "ocean change"?
- 0=not relevant
- 1=somewhat; e.g., alluded to but not mentioned explicitly
- 2=yes, directly addressed
- 1=some; e.g., mentions specific places, but insufficient detail for a Scientific American-type article
Writing clear and organized?
- 0=no, very difficult to follow
- 1=somewhat; e.g., lacking summary/overview or other structure, but reader can still follow with some effort
- 2=yes, considering time allotted
Alternative Assessment. This exam question or writing assignment addresses how thinking about a problem from a systems perspective leads to more nuanced conclusions than considering just individual parts or a single cause-effect relationship. Student handout (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 127kB Sep14 16) (PDF version). (Acrobat (PDF) 105kB Sep14 16)
- The first speaker states the cause-effect relationship plainly: cormorants are eating salmon, therefore we have to remove cormorants.
- Now it is your turn. How would showing a systems diagram like the one shown here make your policy recommendations different from that of the first speaker?
- A full-credit answer is (1) logical, (2) clear, and (3) makes reference to complexity/nuance, especially the importance of environmental policy decisions being made based on more than a simple cause-effect relationship.
References and Resources
Hiller Connell, K.Y. et al., 2012. Assessing Systems Thinking Skills in Two Undergraduate Sustainability Courses: A Comparison of Teaching Strategies.