# What is a Step?

A step includes a set of instructions to perform a specific activity. For example, instructions for getting a time series of streamflow is a step. Similarly, plotting the streamflow hydrograph in Excel is a step. Separating baseflow from the streamflow hydrograph is a step. Each step has some input and output. For example, the baseflow separation step cannot be performed without an input streamflow hydrograph to create an output including the direct runoff hydrograph and the baseflow. Similarly, the streamflow hydrograph step cannot be performed without getting the streamflow data. The input and output structure associated with each step enables their use with other steps in more than one Unit. This page contains the list of existing steps available in the system.

# List of all Steps

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Creating a Time Series Plot in Excel

Purpose The purpose of this module is to demonstrate how to create a time-series plot using MS Excel. The module is developed by using USGS streamflow data as an example, but the same process can be followed for ...

Periodic behavior

Jasmine Gregory, North Carolina State University

Time series data often exhibit cyclical behavior. One example is the regular shift between dry and wet seasons in many areas of the world. Such behavior is often referred to as seasonality or periodic behavior. In ...

Downloading NCDC Climate Data from Internet into a Text File

Purpose The purpose of this exercise to demonstrate the steps involved in downloading climate (precipitation and temperature) data from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The lesson is developed by using a ...

Stationary and nonstationary behavior

Jasmine Gregory, North Carolina State University

Stationarity and nonstationarity are terms you may have encountered previously if you've taken water or climate related courses and are important for understanding changes in the Earth System. But what do ...

Introduction to Flood Frequency Analysis

Siddharth Saksena, Purdue University-Main Campus

The objective of this step is to familiarize students with the concept of flood frequency analysis. After reading the information provided in this step, the students will be able to understand the importance of ...

Flood Frequency Analysis using RWater

Adnan Rajib, Purdue University-Main Campus

Flood Frequency Analysis involves large amount of calculation and data processing, requiring significant level of understanding of the process and expertise. This module introduces RWater - an interactive online ...

Plotting the Flood Frequency Curve using Gumbel Distribution

Siddharth Saksena, Purdue University-Main Campus

The objective of this step is to make the students familiar with the concept of flood frequency analysis. This step assumes that the user already has information on the peak streamflow data for a USGS gauge ...

Downloading Annual Peak Streamflow Data from USGS

Siddharth Saksena, Purdue University-Main Campus

This step demonstrates how to download the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) annual peak streamflow data recorded at a USGS gauging station in the United States. In this step, the students will use the ...

Visualization of rainfall-runoff time series data

Tianfang Xu, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

In this step, students will perform basic time series plotting using tools of choice, such as Excel, MATLAB or R.

Autocorrelation analysis of rainfall-runoff data

Tianfang Xu, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

The goal of this unit is to build a model to simulate stream discharge. In this step, we will explore what are important factors that affect discharge.

Explore the data by creating graphs of discharge and water isotopes

Anne Jefferson, Kent State University-Main Campus

Using data downloaded from Hydroclient, you will create graphs that show discharge in the West Branch of the Mahoning River at Jenning's Woods, precipitation, and isotopes. The step-by-step instructions are ...

Calculate the amount of new event water in the stream at each time point using isotope and discharge data

Anne Jefferson, Kent State University-Main Campus

Using the products of previous steps, you will use a two end-member mixing model to separate the hydrograph of the West Branch of the Mahoning River for the event that occurred April 3-6, 2014.

Create a graph of turbidity and precipitation and answer data analysis questions

Sharon Dykhoff, Washington D.C. Metro Area - Science Teacher at Dominion Christian School - Dominion Christian School, Susan Brantley, The Pennsylvania State University

Students will graph turbidity and precipitation in Larry's Creek Watershed and identify an area in the graph where turbidity is not caused by rain and is most likely cause by a nearby natural gas drilling leak.

Downloading Discharge and Precipitation Data from HydroClient and Interpreting it with Graphs in Excel

Liza Brazil, Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc

The following step demonstrates how to use the HydroClient web interface to get time series data for discharge and precipitation from multiple data sources located near Lake Tahoe, CA during 2012. The procedure to ...

Calculating the Total Annual Precipitation

Nikhil Sangwan, Purdue University-Main Campus

The objective of this step is to calculate the total annual depth of precipitation from a given precipitation time series . We have used the 15 minutes interval historical precipitation data, recorded at the ...

Calculating the Total Annual Depth of Streamflow

Nikhil Sangwan, Purdue University-Main Campus

The objective of this step is to calculate the total annual depth of streamflow from a given streamflow time series . We have used the historical instantaneous streamflow data of the Hall Creek in Indiana (USGS ...

Estimating the Total Annual Evapotranspiration depth using the Annual Watershed Balance concept

Nikhil Sangwan, Purdue University-Main Campus

The objective of this step is to estimate the total annual evapotranspiration depth in the study area by applying the law of mass conservation in the watershed. Using a simple bucket model, the change in watershed ...

Downloading Climate Data from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)

Venkatesh Merwade, Purdue University-Main Campus

This step demonstrates how to use the National Climatic Data Center's (NCDC) web interface to get 15 minutes interval historical precipitation data for a climate station in the United States. This step is ...

Computing Excess Rainfall Hyetograph using SCS CN Method

Introduction The objective of this step is to learn how to compute excess rainfall hyetograph from a total rainfall hyetograph using the Soil Conservation Service's (SCS) Curve Number (CN) method. This steps ...

Computing Excess Rainfall using Phi Index (Constant Loss) Method

Introduction The objective of this step is to learn how to compute excess rainfall hyetograph from a total rainfall hyetograph using constant loss or the phi index. This steps assumes that the user already has a ...