Wyoming Craton References

This is a collection of references compiled by David Mogk and Darrell Henry, with contributions from the 2019 EarthScope Synthesis Workshop: Life and Death of a Craton: A 4D EarthScope Perspective on the Role of the Wyoming Craton in the Evolution of North America. Many of the references are a direct product of the EarthScope program. Other references provide a historical perspective of the many contributions made from geological, geochemical, geochronological, and geophysical investigations of cratons in general and the Wyoming Craton specifically. This is a growing, community-based reference collection, so feel free to send additional references to be posted to mogkATmontana.edu or by using the Contribute a Reference form.

Purpose of this Reference Collection

For researchers (including students starting a new thesis project):

  • Please use this collection as a place to start for your new research project in the Wyoming Craton. You will find some of the foundational literature that has shaped our understanding of the Wyoming Craton over the past number of decades. You will also find some of the most exciting new science to emerge, particulalrly as a result of the EarthScope project. Many of the "big questions" are necessarily interdisciplinary, and you will find opportunities to integrate results from across many geoscience disciplines.

For teaching faculty, we encourage you to:

Teaching Strategies for Teaching with the Primary Literature

Many of us use the primary literature in our courses. However, students (particularly undergraduates) need some guidance in learning how to mine the information in professional scientific writings. Here are a few examples of different approaches one can take in teaching students how to read journal articles. (These teaching strategies derive from the On the Cutting Edge program Teaching Petrology in the 21st Century module, Teaching Strategies Using the Primary Literature).

 
 

References on the Genesis, Evolution, Composition, and Structure of Arranged by Topics Related to the Wyoming Craton

Jump down to references on the Wyoming Craton: Archean | Proterozoic | Phanerozoic | Geophysics

General References on Cratons, Crustal Genesis, Crustal Evolution,

Nature of Cratons

  • Cooper, C. M., and Miller, M. S., 2014, Craton formation: Internal structure inherited from closing of the early oceans: Lithosphere, v. 6, no. 1, p. 35-42.
  • Cooper, C. M., Miller, M. S., and Moresi, L., 2017, The structural evolution of the deep continental lithosphere: Tectonophysics, v. 695, p. 100-121.
  • Hoffman, P. F., Bally, A. W., and Palmer, A. R., 1989, Precambrian geology and tectonic history of North America: The geology of North Americaâ€"an overview, p. 447-512.
  • Hoffman, P. F., 1988, United plates of America, the birth of a craton: Early Proterozoic assembly and growth of Laurentia: Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, v. 16, no. 1, p. 543-603.
  • Pollack, H. N., 1986, Cratonization and thermal evolution of the mantle: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 80, no. 1-2, p. 175-182.

Destruction of Cratons

  • Dave, R., and Li, A., 2016, Destruction of the Wyoming craton: Seismic evidence and geodynamic processes: Geology, v. 44, no. 11, p. 883-886.
  • Foley, S. F. 2008. Rejuvenation and erosion of the cratonic lithosphere. Nat. Geosci. 1:503â€"510.
     
  • Gao, S.; Zhang, J.; Xu,W.; and Liu, Y. 2009. Delamination and destruction of the North China Craton. Chin. Sci. Bull. 54:3367â€"3378.
     
  • Koornneef, J.M.; Davies, G. R.; Döpp, S. P.; Vukmanovic, Z.; Nikogosian, I. K.; and Mason, P. R. 2009. Nature and timing of multiple metasomatic events in the subcratonic lithosphere beneath Labait, Tanzania. Lithos. 112:896â€"912.
     
  • Kusky, T. M.; Windley, B. F.; Wang, L.; Wang, Z.; Li, X.; and Zhu, P. 2014. Flat slab subduction, trench suction, and craton destruction: comparison of the North China, Wyoming, and Brazilian Cratons. Tectonophysics 3:208â€"221.
     
  • Kusky, T. M.; Windley, B. F.; and Zhai, M. 2007a. Lithospheric thinning in eastern Asia: constraints, evolution, and tests of models. Geol. Soc. Lond. Spec. Publ. 280:331â€"343.
     
  • Kusky, T. M.; Windley, B. F.; and Zhai, M.. 2007b. Tectonic evolution of the North China Block: from orogen to craton to orogen. Geol. Soc. Lond. Spec. Publ. 280:1â€"34. Larsen, L. M., and Rex,D.C. 1992.
     
  • Lee, C. T., and Rudnick, R. L. 1999. Compositionally stratified cratonic lithosphere: petrology and geochemistry of peridotite xenoliths from the Labait tuff cone, Tanzania. Proceedings of the 7th International Kimberlite Conference, p. 503â€"521.
     
  • Liao, J., and Gerya, T. 2014. Influence of lithospheric mantle stratification on craton extension: insight from two-dimensional thermo-mechanical modeling. Tectonophysics 631:50â€"64.
     
  • Liégeois, J.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Ennih, N.; and Ouabadi, A. 2013. Metacraton: nature, genesis and behavior. Gondwana Res. 23:220â€"237.
     
  • Menzies, M. A.; Fan,W.; and Zhang,M. 1993. Paleozoic and Cenozoic lithoprobes and the loss of 1120 km of Archaean lithosphere, Sino-Korean Craton, China. Geol. Soc. Lond. Spec. Publ. 76:71â€"81.
     
  • Raval, U., and Veeraswamy, K. 2003. India-Madagascar separation: breakup along a pre-existing mobile belt and chipping of the craton. Gondwana Res. 6:467â€"485.
     
  • Sleep, N. H. (2003). Survival of Archean cratonal lithosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108(B6), 2302.https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000169
     
  • Wallner, H., and Schmeling, H. 2010. Rift induced delamination of mantle lithosphere and crustal uplift: a new mechanism for explaining Rwenzori Mountains' extreme elevation? Int. J. Earth Sci. 99:1511â€"1524.
     
  • Wang, Z., T.M. Kusky, F.A.Capitanio, 2018. Water transportation ability of flat-lying slabs in the mantel transition zone and implications for craton destruction. Tectonophysics, 723, 95-106.
     

Crustal Genesis and Evolution: Geochemistry and Geochronology

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  • Armstrong, R. L., 1981, Radiogenic isotopes: the case for crustal recycling on a near-steady-state no-continental-growth Earth: Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A, v. 301, no. 1461, p. 443-472.
  • Arth, J. G., Barker, F., Peterman, Z. E., and Friedman, I., 1978, Geochemistry of the gabbroâ€"dioriteâ€"tonaliteâ€"trondhjemite suite of southwest Finland and its implications for the origin of tonalitic and trondhjemitic magmas: Journal of Petrology, v. 19, no. 2, p. 289-316.
  • Barker, F., and Arth, J. G., 1976, Generation of trondhjemitic-tonalitic liquids and Archean bimodal trondhjemite-basalt suites: Geology, v. 4, no. 10, p. 596-600.
  • Bolhar, R., Kamber, B. S., and Collerson, K. D., 2007, Uâ€"Thâ€"Pb fractionation in Archaean lower continental crust: Implications for terrestrial Pb isotope systematics: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 254, no. 1-2, p. 127-145.
  • Frost, C. D., Bell, J. M., Frost, B. R., and Chamberlain, K. R., 2001, Crustal growth by magmatic underplating: Isotopic evidence from the northern Sherman batholith: Geology, v. 29, no. 6, p. 515-518.
  • Frost, C. D., Frost, B. R., Kirkwood, R., and Chamberlain, K. R., 2006, The tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) to granodiorite-granite (GG) transition in the late Archean plutonic rocks of the central Wyoming Province: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 43, no. 10, p. 1419-1444.
  • Frost, C. D., McLaughlin, J.F., Frost, B.R., Fanning, C.M., Swapp, S.M., Kruckenberg, S.C., Gonzalez, J., 2017, Hadean origins of Paleoarchean continental crust in the central Wyoming Province. GSA Bulletin, 129(3-4), 259-280.
  • Frost, C. D., McLaughlin, J.F., Frost, B.R., Fanning, C.M., Swapp, S.M., Kruckenberg, S.C., Gonzalez, J., 2017, Hadean origins of Paleoarchean continental crust in the central Wyoming Province. GSA Bulletin, 129(3-4), 259-280.
  • Fyfe, W. S., 1978, The evolution of the Earth's crust: modern plate tectonics to ancient hot spot tectonics?: Chemical Geology, v. 23, no. 1-4, p. 89-114.
  • Kemp, A. I. S., Hickman, A. H., Kirkland, C. L., and Vervoort, J. D., 2015, Hf isotopes in detrital and inherited zircons of the Pilbara Craton provide no evidence for Hadean continents: Precambrian Research, v. 261, p. 112-126.
  • Mueller, P. A., and Wooden, J. L., 2012, Trace Element and Lu-Hf Systematics in Hadean-Archean Detrital Zircons: Implications for Crustal Evolution: The Journal of Geology, v. 120, no. 1, p. 15-29.
  • Mueller, P. A., Wooden, J. L., and Nutman, A. P., 1992, 3.96 Ga Zircons from an Archean Quartzite, Beartooth Mountains, Montana: Geology, v. 20, no. 4, p. 327-330.
  • Mueller, P. A., Wooden, J. L., Schulz, K., and Bowes, D. R., 1983, Incompatible-element rich andesitic amphibolites from the Archean of Montana and Wyoming - Evidence for mantle metasomatism: Geology, v. 11, no. 4, p. 203-206.
  • Valley, J. W., Lackey, J. S., Cavosie, A. J., Clechenko, C. C., Spicuzza, M. J., Basei, M. A. S., Bindeman, I. N., Ferreira, V. P., Sial, A. N., King, E. M., Peck, W. H., Sinha, A. K., and Wei, C. S., 2005, 4.4 billion years of crustal maturation: oxygen isotope ratios of magmatic zircon: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 150, no. 6, p. 561-580.
  • Wooden, J. L., and Mueller, P. A., 1988, Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic compositions of a suite of Late Archean, igneous rocks, eastern Beartooth Mountains: implications for crust-mantle evolution: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 87, no. 1-2, p. 59-72.
  • Archean Tectonics--Plate (or Not), Plumes, Static Lid,...????

  • Beall, A. P., Moresi, L., and Cooper, C. M., 2018, Formation of cratonic lithosphere during the initiation of plate tectonics: Geology, v. 46, no. 6, p. 487-490.
  • Bédard, J. H., 2006, A catalytic delamination-driven model for coupled genesis of Archaean crust and sub-continental lithospheric mantle: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 70, no. 5, p. 1188-1214.
  • Fyfe, W. S., 1978, The evolution of the Earth's crust: modern plate tectonics to ancient hot spot tectonics?: Chemical Geology, v. 23, no. 1-4, p. 89-114.
  • Mueller, P. A., and Wooden, J. L., 1988, Evidence for Archean Subduction and Crustal Recycling, Wyoming Province: Geology, v. 16, no. 10, p. 871-874.
  • Archean Geology of the Wyoming Craton

    Archean Geology of the Wyoming Craton (general)

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    • Chamberlain, K. R., and Mueller, P. A., 2007, Chapter 6.3 Oldest Rocks of the Wyoming Craton, in Martin J. van Kranendonk, R. H. S., and Vickie, C. B., eds., Developments in Precambrian Geology, Volume Volume 15, Elsevier, p. 775-791.
    • Chamberlain, K. and Mueller, P., 2018, Oldest rocks of the Wyoming Craton, in M.J. van Kranendonk, V. C. B., J.E. Hoffmann, ed., Earth's Oldest Rocks, Elsevier.
    • Chamberlain, K. R., Frost, C. D., and Frost, B. R., 2003, Early Archean to Mesoproterozoic evolution of the Wyoming Province: Archean origins to modern lithospheric architecture: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 40, no. 10, p. 1357-1374.
    • Chamberlain, K. R., Kilian, T. M., Evans, D. A. D., Bleeker, W., and Cousens, B. L., 2017, Wyoming on the runâ€"Toward final Paleoproterozoic assembly of Laurentia: REPLY: Geology, v. 45, no. 4, p. e412-e412.
    • Condie, K. C., 1976, The Wyoming Archean Province in the western United States: The early history of the Earth. Edited by BF Windley. Wiley, London, UK, p. 499-511.
    • Frost, C. D., 1993, Nd Isotopic Evidence for the Antiquity of the Wyoming Province: Geology, v. 21, no. 4, p. 351-354.
    • Frost, C. D., McLaughlin, J.F., Frost, B.R., Fanning, C.M., Swapp, S.M., Kruckenberg, S.C., Gonzalez, J., 2017, Hadean origins of Paleoarchean continental crust in the central Wyoming Province. GSA Bulletin, 129(3-4), 259-280.
    • Frost, C. D., McLaughlin, J.F., Frost, B.R., Fanning, C.M., Swapp, S.M., Kruckenberg, S.C., Gonzalez, J., 2017, Hadean origins of Paleoarchean continental crust in the central Wyoming Province. GSA Bulletin, 129(3-4), 259-280.
    • Gaschnig, R. M., Vervoort, J. D., Lewis, R. S., and Tikoff, B., 2013, Probing for Proterozoic and Archean crust in the northern US Cordillera with inherited zircon from the Idaho batholith: Bulletin, v. 125, no. 1-2, p. 73-88.
    • Gibbs, A. K., Montgomery, C. W., O'Day, P. A., and Erslev, E. A., 1986, The Archean-Proterozoic transition: Evidence from the geochemistry of metasedimentary rocks of Guyana and Montana: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 50, no. 10, p. 2125-2141.
    • Gifford, J. N., Mueller, P. A., Foster, D. A., and Mogk, D. W., 2018, Extending the realm of Archean crust in the Great Falls tectonic zone: Evidence from the Little Rocky Mountains, Montana: Precambrian Research, v. 315, p. 264-281.
    • Humphreys, E. D., Schmandt, B., Bezada, M. J., and Perry-Houts, J., 2015, Recent craton growth by slab stacking beneath Wyoming: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 429, p. 170-180.
    • James, H. L., and Hedge, C. E., 1980, Age of the basement rocks of southwest Montana: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 91, no. 1, p. 11-15.
    • Mogk, D. W., and Henry, D. J., 1988, Metamorphic petrology of the northern Archean Wyoming Province, Southwestern Montana: Evidence for collisional tectonics, in Ernst, W. G., ed., Metamorphism and Crustal Evolution of the Western US, Volume Rubey Volume VII, Prentice-Hall, p. 362-382.
    • Mogk, D. W., Mueller, P. A., and Wooden, J. L., 1992, The Nature of Archean Terrane Boundaries - an Example from the Northern Wyoming Province: Precambrian Research, v. 55, no. 1-4, p. 155-168.
    • Mogk, D. W., Mueller, P. A., Wooden, J. L., and Bowes, D. R., 1992, The northern Wyoming province: Contrasts in Archean crustal evolution, Basement Tectonics 8, Springer, p. 283-297.
    • Mueller, P. A., Wooden, J. L., Nutman, A. P., and Mogk, D. W., 1998, Early Archean crust in the northern Wyoming province - Evidence from U-Pb ages of detrital zircons: Precambrian Research, v. 91, no. 3-4, p. 295-307.
    • Roberts, H., Dahl, P., Kelley, S., and Frei, R., 2002, New Pb-207-Pb-206 and Ar-40-Ar-39 ages from SW Montana, USA: constraints on the Proterozoic and Archaean tectonic and depositional history of the Wyoming Province: Precambrian Research, v. 117, no. 1-2, p. 119-143.
    • Sims, P. K., O'Neill, J. M., Bankey, V., and Anderson, E., 2004, Precambrian basement geologic map of Montana; an interpretation of aeromagnetic anomalies, 2329-132X.
    • Wilson, J. T., 1936, Geology of the Mill Creek-Stillwater area, Montana [PhD: Princeton, 202 p.

    Xenoliths of the Wyoming Craton

    Mantle Xenoliths

    • Carlson, R. W., and Irving, A. J., 1994, Depletion and enrichment history of subcontinental lithospheric mantle - an Os, Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic study of ultramafic xenoliths from the northwestern Wyoming Craton: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 126, no. 4, p. 457-472.
    • Hearn, B. C., 1989, Bearpaw Mountains, Montana: Montana High‐Potassimn Igneous Province: Crazy Mountains to Jordan, Montana, p. 51-61.
    • Hearn, B. C., Collerson, K. D., MacDonald, R. A., and Upton, B. G. J., Mantleâ€"crustal lithosphere of north central Montana, USA: evidence from xenoliths, Continental Magmatism1989, Volume 131, p. 125.
    • Irving, A. J., and Hearn Jr, B. C., Alkalic rocks of Montana: kimberlites, lamproites, and related magmatic rocks, in Proceedings VIIIth Internaional Kimberlite Conference2003.

    Crustal Xenoliths

    • Barnhart, K. R., Mahan, K. H., Blackburn, T. J., Bowring, S. A., and Dudas, F. O., 2012, Deep crustal xenoliths from central Montana, USA: Implications for the timing and mechanisms of high-velocity lower crust formation: Geosphere, v. 8, no. 6, p. 1408-1428.
    • Gifford, J. N., Mueller, P. A., Foster, D. A., and Mogk, D. W., 2014, Precambrian Crustal Evolution in the Great Falls Tectonic Zone: Insights from Xenoliths from the Montana Alkali Province: The Journal of Geology, v. 122, no. 5, p. 531-548.
    • Leeman, W. P., Menzies, M. A., Matty, D. J., and Embree, G. F., 1985, Strontium, neodymium and lead isotopic compositions of deep crustal xenoliths from the Snake River Plain: evidence for Archean basement: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 75, no. 4, p. 354-368.
    • Leeman, W. P., Sisson, V. B., and Reid, M. R., 1992, Boron geochemistry of the lower crust: evidence from granulite terranes and deep crustal xenoliths: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 56, no. 2, p. 775-788.
    • Mahan, K. H., Schulte-Pelkum, V., Blackburn, T. J., Bowring, S. A., and Dudas, F. O., 2012, Seismic structure and lithospheric rheology from deep crustal xenoliths, central Montana, USA: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, v. 13, no. 10.
    • Schulte-Pelkum, V., Mahan, K. H., Shen, W., and Stachnik, J. C., 2017, The distribution and composition of high-velocity lower crust across the continental US: Comparison of seismic and xenolith data and implications for lithospheric dynamics and history: Tectonics, v. 36, no. 8, p. 1455-1496.

    Beartooth-Bighorn Magmatic Terrane (and North Snowy Block)

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    • Arth, J. G., Barker, F., and Stern, T. W., 1980, Geochronology of Archean gneisses in the Lake Helen area, southwestern Big Horn Mountains, Wyoming: Precambrian Research, v. 11, no. 1, p. 11-22.
    • Barker, F., Arth, J. G., and Millard Jr, H. T., 1979, Archean trondhjemites of the southwestern Big Horn Mountains, Wyoming: a preliminary report, Developments in petrology, Volume 6, Elsevier, p. 401-414.
    • Bowes, D. R., and Skinner, W. R., 1969, Geochemical Comparison of Stillwater Complex and Alpine-Type Ultrabasic Complexes, Beartooth-Mountains, Montana and Wyoming: Geological Magazine, v. 106, no. 5, p. 477.
    • Butler, J. R., 1966, Geologic Evolution of Beartooth Mountains Montana and Wyoming .6. Cathedral Peak Area Montana: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 77, no. 1, p. 45-64.
    • Butler, J. R., 1969, Origin of Precambrian gneiss in the Beartooth Mountains, Montana and Wyoming: Geological Society of America - Memoirs, v. 115, p. 73-101.
    • Casella, C. J., 1964, Geologic Evolution of the Beartooth Mountains, Montana and Wyoming. Part.4. Relationship between Precambrian and Laramide Structures in the Line Creek Area: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 75, no. 10, p. 969-986.
    • Casella, C. J., 1969, A review of the Precambrian geology of the eastern Beartooth Mountains, Montana and Wyoming: Geological Society of America - Memoirs, v. 115, p. 53-71.
    • Eckelmann, F. D., and Poldervaart, A., 1957, Geologic Evolution of the Beartooth Mountains, Montana and Wyoming .1. Archean History of the Quad Creek Area: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 68, no. 10, p. 1225-1261.
    • Frost, C. D., and Fanning, C. M., 2006, Archean geochronological framework of the Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 43, no. 10, p. 1399-1418.
    • Frost, C. D., McLaughlin, J.F., Frost, B.R., Fanning, C.M., Swapp, S.M., Kruckenberg, S.C., Gonzalez, J., 2017, Hadean origins of Paleoarchean continental crust in the central Wyoming Province. GSA Bulletin, 129(3-4), 259-280.
    • Guevara, V. E., Caddick, M. J., and Dragovic, B., 2017, Rapid high- T decompression recorded by Archean granulites in the northern Wyoming Province: Insights from petrological modelling: Journal of Metamorphic Geology, v. 35, no. 9, p. 943-965.
    • Harris, R. L., 1959, Geologic evolution of the Beartooth Mountains, Montana and Wyoming. Part.3. Gardner Lake area, Wyoming: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 70, no. 9, p. 1185-1216.
    • Henry, D. J., Mueller, P. A., Wooden, J. L., Warner, J. L., and Lee-Berman, R., 1982, Granulite grade supracrustal assemblages of the Quad Creek area, eastern Beartooth Mountains, Montana: Special Publication - State of Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, no. 84, p. 147-156.
    • Henry, D. J., Will, C. N., and Mueller, P. A., 2015, Ba-rich K-feldspar from mafic xenoliths with Mesoarchean granitic rocks, Beartooth Mountains, Montana, USA: Indicators for barium metasomatism: The Canadian Mineralogist, v. 53, no. 2, p. 185-198.
    • Henry, D. J., and Daigle, N. M., 2018, Chlorine incorporation into amphibole and biotite in high-grade iron-formations: Interplay between crystallography and metamorphic fluids: American Mineralogist, v. 103, no. 1, p. 55-68.
    • James, H. L., 1946, Chromite deposits near Red Lodge, Carbon County, Montana: U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin, v. 945, p. 151-189.
    • James, H. L., 1992, Precambrian iron-formations: nature, origin, and mineralogic evolution from sedimentation to metamorphism, Developments in sedimentology, Volume 47, Elsevier, p. 543-589.
    • Larsen, L. H., Poldervaart, A., and Kirchmayer, M., 1966, Geologic evolution of Beartooth Mountains Montana and Wyoming . 7. Structural homogeneity of gneisses in Lonesome Mountain area: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 77, no. 11, p. 1277-1292.
    • Longhi, J., Wooden, J. L., and Coppinger, K. D., 1983, The Petrology of High-Mg Dikes from the Beartooth Mountains, Montana - a Search for the Parent Magma of the Stillwater Complex: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 88, p. B53-B69.
    • Maier, A. C., Cates, N. L., Trail, D., and Mojzsis, S. J., 2012, Geology, age and field relations of Hadean zircon-bearing supracrustal rocks from Quad Creek, eastern Beartooth Mountains (Montana and Wyoming, USA): Chemical Geology, v. 312, p. 47-57.
    • Mogk, D. M., and Henry, D. J., 1988, Metamorphic petrology of the northern Archean Wyoming Province, southwestern Montana; evidence for Archean collisional tectonics: Rubey Volume, v. 7, p. 363-382.
    • Mogk, D. W., 1988, Archean allochthonous units in the northern and western Beartooth Mountains, Montana, Montana Bur. Mines and Geol Sp. Paper, Volume 96, p. 43-51.
    • Mogk, D. W., Mueller, P. A., and Wooden, J. L., 1988, Archean Tectonics of the North-Snowy-Block, Beartooth Mountains, Montana: Journal of Geology, v. 96, no. 2, p. 125-141.
    • Mueller, P. A., Wooden, J. L., Schulz, K., and Bowes, D. R., 1983, Incompatible-element rich andesitic amphibolites from the Archean of Montana and Wyoming - Evidence for mantle metasomatism: Geology, v. 11, no. 4, p. 203-206.
    • Mueller, P. A., Wooden, J. L., Henry, D. J., and Bowes, D. R., 1985, Archean crustal evolution of the eastern Beartooth Mountains, Montana and Wyoming: Special Publication - State of Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, v. 92, p. 9-20.
    • Mueller, P. A., Shuster, R. D., Graves, M. A., Wooden, J. L., Bowes, D. R., Lewis, S., and Berg, R. B., 1988, Age and composition of a late Archean magmatic complex, Beartooth Mountains, Montanaâ€"Wyoming: Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, v. 96, p. 7-22
    • Mueller, P. A., and Wooden, J. L., 1988, Evidence for Archean Subduction and Crustal Recycling, Wyoming Province: Geology, v. 16, no. 10, p. 871-874.
    • Mueller, P. A., Wooden, J. L., and Nutman, A. P., 1992, 3.96 Ga Zircons from an Archean Quartzite, Beartooth Mountains, Montana: Geology, v. 20, no. 4, p. 327-330.
    • Mueller, P. A., Wooden, J. L., Mogk, D. W., Nutman, A. P., and Williams, I. S., 1996, Extended history of a 3.5 Ga trondhjemitic Gneiss, Wyoming province, USA: Evidence from U-Pb systematics in zircon: Precambrian Research, v. 78, no. 1-3, p. 41-52.
    • Mueller, P., Mogk, D., Henry, D. J., Wooden, J., and Foster, D., 2008, Geologic evolution of the Beartooth Mountains: Insights from petrology and geochemistry: Northwest Geol, v. 37, p. 5-20.
    • Mueller, P. A., Wooden, J. L., Mogk, D. W., Henry, D. J., and Bowes, D. R., 2010, Rapid growth of an Archean continent by arc magmatism: Precambrian Research, v. 183, no. 1, p. 70-88.
    • Prinz, M., 1964, Geologic evolution of Beartooth Mountains Montana and Wyoming. Part 5. Mafic dike swarms of southern Beartooth Mountains: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 75, no. 12, p. 1217-1248.
    • Prinz, M., 1964, Structural relationships of mafic dikes in the Beartooth Mountains, Montana-Wyoming: Journal of Geology, p. 165-174.
    • Reid, R. R., McMannis, W. J., and Palmquist, J. C., 1975, Precambrian geology of North Snowy Block, Beartooth Mountains, Montana: GSA Special Paper, v. 157, p. 135.
    • Rowan, L. C., 1969, Structural geology of the Quad-Wyoming-Line Creeks area, Beartooth Mountains, Montana: Geological Society of America - Memoirs, v. 115, p. 1-18.
    • Rowan, L. C., and Mueller, P. A., 1971, Relations of folded dikes and Precambrian polyphase deforamtion, Gardner Lake Area, Beartooth Mountains, Wyoming: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 82, no. 8, p. 2177
    • Skinner, W. R., 1969, Geologic evolution of the Beartooth Mountains, Montana and Wyoming. Part 8. Ultramafic rocks in the Highline Trail Lakes area, Wyoming: Geological Society of America - Memoirs, v. 115, p. 19-52.
    • Skinner, W. R., Bowes, D. R., and Khoury, S. G., 1969, Polyphase deformation in Archean basement complex Beartooth Mountains Montana and Wyoming: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 80, no. 6, p. 1053-
    • Spencer, E. W., 1959, Geologic Evolution of the Beartooth Mountains, Montana and Wyoming. 2. Fracture Patterns: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 70, no. 4, p. 467-508.
    • Wooden, J. L., Mueller, P. A., Hunt, D. K., and Bowes, D. R., 1982, Geochemistry and Rb-Sr geochronology of Archean rocks from the interior of the southeastern Beartooth Mountains, Montana and Wyoming: Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, Special Publication, v. 84, p. 45-55.
    • Wooden, J. L., and Mueller, P. A., 1988, Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic compositions of a suite of Late Archean, igneous rocks, eastern Beartooth Mountains: implications for crust-mantle evolution: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 87, no. 1-2, p. 59-72.

    South Snowy Block

    • Casella, C. J., Levay, J., Eble, E., Hirst, B., Huffman, K., Lahti, V., and Metzger, R., 1982, Precambrian Geology of the southwestern Beartooth Mountains, Yellowstone national Park, Montana and Wyoming: Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, Special Publication, v. 84, p. 1-24.
    • Erslev, E. A., 1992, Precambrian geology and ductile normal faulting in the southwest corner of the Beartooth Uplift, Montana, Basement Tectonics 8, Springer, p. 313-322.
    • Jablinski, J. D., and Holst, T. B., 1992, Deformational history of Archean metasedimentary rocks of the Beartooth Mountains in the vicinity of the Mineral Hill mine, Jardine, Montana: The Journal of Geology, v. 100, no. 5, p. 561-578.
    • Mogk, D., Henry, D., Mueller, P., and Foster, D., 2012, Origins of a continent: Yellowstone Science, v. 20, no. 2, p. 22-32.
    • Montgomery, C. W., and Lytwyn, J. N., 1984, Rb-Sr Systematics and Ages of Principal Precambrian Lithologies in the South Snowy Block, Beartooth Mountains: Journal of Geology, v. 92, no. 1, p. 103-112.

    Montana Metasedimentary Terrane (Archean Madison, Gallatin, Tobacco Root, Ruby, Gravelly, Highland general geology)

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    • Brady, J. B., Burger, H. R., Cheney, J. T., and Harms, T. A., 2004: Precambrian Geology of the Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana: Geological Society of America Special Paper, v. 377, p. 256.
    • Mogk, D. W., 1992, Ductile shearing and migmatization at mid‐crustal levels in an Archaean high‐grade gneiss belt, northern Gallatin Range, Montana, USA: Journal of Metamorphic Geology, v. 10, no. 3, p. 427-438.
    • Mogk, D. W., Burger, H. R., Mueller, P. A., D Arcy, K., Heatherington, A. L., Wooden, J. L., Abeyta, R. L., Martin, J., and Jacob, L. J., 2004, Geochemistry of quartzofeldspathic gneisses and metamorphic mafic rocks of the Indian Creek and Pony-Middle Mountain Metamorphic suites, Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana: SPECIAL PAPERS-GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, p. 15-46.
    • Mueller, P. A., Wooden, J. L., and Mogk, D. W., 2011, 2450 Ma metamorphism recorded in 3250 Ma gneisses, Gallatin Range, Montana: Northwest Geology, v. 40, p. 1-7.
    • Spencer, E. W., and Kozak, S. J., 1975, Precambrian evolution of the Spanish Peaks area, Montana: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 86, no. 6, p. 785-792.
    • Sumner, W., and Erslev, E. A., 1988, Late Archean thin-skinned thrusting of the Cherry Creek metamorphic suite in the Henry's Lake Mountains, southern Madison Range, Montana and Idaho: Precambrian and Mesozoic Plate Margins: Montana Bureau of Mines, Special Publication, v. 96, no. 195, p. 7-22.
    • Tysdal, R. G., 1976, Geologic map of the northern part of the Ruby Range: Madison County, Montana: US Geological Survey Geological Investigations Map, v. 1, p. 951.
    • Vitaliano, C. J., Cordua, W. S., Burger, H. R., Hanley, T. B., Hess, D. F., and Root, F. K., 1979, Geology and structure of the southern part of the Tobacco Root Mountains, southwestern Montana: Map summary: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 90, no. 8, p. 712-715.

    Wind River-Bighorn-Tetons and Related Areas in Wyoming

    • Frost, C. D., McLaughlin, J.F., Frost, B.R., Fanning, C.M., Swapp, S.M., Kruckenberg, S.C., Gonzalez, J., 2017, Hadean origins of Paleoarchean continental crust in the central Wyoming Province. GSA Bulletin, 129(3-4), 259-280.

    Southern Accreted Terrane

    • Bowers, N. E., and Chamberlain, K. R., 2006, Precambrian history of the eastern Ferris Mountains and Bear Mountain, south-central Wyoming Province: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 43, no. 10, p. 1467-1487.
    • Frost, C. D., Frost, B. R., Lindsley, D. H., Chamberlain, K. R., Swapp, S. M., and Scoates, J. S., 2010, Chemical and isotopic evolution of the anorthositic plutons of the Laramie Anorthosite Complex: Explanations for variations in silica activity and oxygen fugacity of massif anorthosites: The Canadian Mineralogist, v. 48, no. 4, p. 925-946.
    • Frost, C. D., Fruchey, B. L., Chamberlain, K. R., and Frost, B. R., 2006, Archean crustal growth by lateral accretion of juvenile supracrustal belts in the south-central Wyoming Province: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 43, no. 10, p. 1533-1555.
    • Grace, R. L. B., Chamberlain, K. R., Frost, B. R., and Frost, C. D., 2006, Tectonic histories of the Paleo- to Mesoarchean Sacawee block and Neoarchean Oregon Trail structural belt of the south-central Wyoming Province: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 43, no. 10, p. 1445-1466.
    • Patel, S. C., Frost, B. R., Chamberlain, K. R., and Snyder, G. L., 1999, Proterozoic metamorphism and uplift history of the north-central Laramie Mountains, Wyoming, USA: Journal of Metamorphic Geology, v. 17, no. 3, p. 243-258.
    • Souders, A. K., and Frost, C. D., 2006, In suspect terrane? Provenance of the late Archean Phantom Lake metamorphic suite, Sierra Madre, Wyoming: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 43, no. 10, p. 1557-1577.

    Teton-Wind River Ranges

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    • Frost, B. R., Chamberlain, K. R., Swapp, S., Frost, C. D., and Hulsebosch, T. P., 2000, Late Archean structural and metamorphic history of the Wind River Range: Evidence for a long-lived active margin on the Archean Wyoming craton: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 112, no. 4, p. 564-578.
    • Frost, B. R., Frost, C. D., Hulsebosch, T. P., and Swapp, S. M., 2000, Origin of the charnockites of the Louis Lake batholith, Wind River Range, Wyoming: Journal of Petrology, v. 41, no. 12, p. 1759-1776.
    • Frost, B. R., Frost, C. D., Cornia, M., Chamberlain, K. R., and Kirkwood, R., 2006, The Teton-Wind River domain: a 2.68-2.67 Ga active margin in the western Wyoming Province: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 43, no. 10, p. 1489-1510.
    • Frost, B. R., Swapp, S. M., Frost, C. D., Bagdonas, D. A., and Chamberlain, K. R., 2018, Neoarchean tectonic history of the Teton Range: Record of accretion against the present-day western margin of the Wyoming Province: Geosphere, v. 14, no. 3, p. 1008-1030.
    • Frost, B.R., Frost, C. D., Hulsebosch, T. P., and Swapp, S. M., 2000, Origin of the charnockites of the Louis lake Batholith, Wind River Range, Wyoming: Journal of Petrology, v. 41, no. 12, p. 1759-1776.
    • Frost, C. D., Frost, B. R., Chamberlain, K. R., and Hulsebosch, T. P., 1998, The Late Archean history of the Wyoming province as recorded by granitic magmatism in the Wind River Range, Wyoming: Precambrian Research, v. 89, no. 3-4, p. 145-173.
    • Frost, C. D., Swapp, S. M., Frost, B. R., Finley-Blasi, L., and Fitz-Gerald, D. B., 2016, Leucogranites of the Teton Range, Wyoming: A record of Archean collisional orogeny: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 185, p. 528-549.
    • Harlan, S. S., Geissman, J. W., and Premo, W. R., 2003, Paleomagnetism and geochronology of an Early Proterozoic quartz diorite in the southern Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA: Tectonophysics, v. 362, no. 1-4, p. 105-122.

    Stillwater Complex

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    • Boudreau, A. E., 1988, Investigation of the Stillwater Complex: Part 4. The role of volatiles in the petrogenesis of the J-M reef, Minneapolis Adit section: Canadian Mineralogist, v. 26, p. 193-208.
    • Boudreau, A. E., Mathez, E. A., and Mccallum, I. S., 1986, Halogen Geochemistry of the Stillwater and Bushveld Complexes - Evidence for Transport of the Platinum-Group Elements by Cl-Rich Fluids: Journal of Petrology, v. 27, no. 4, p. 967-986.
    • Boudreau, A. E., and Mccallum, I. S., 1989, Investigations of the Stillwater Complex .5. Apatites as Indicators of Evolving Fluid Composition: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 102, no. 2, p. 138-153.
    • DePaolo, D. J., and Wasserburg, G. J., 1979, Sm-Nd Age of the Stillwater Complex and the Mantle Evolution Curve for Neodymium: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 43, no. 7, p. 999-1008.
    • Geissman, J., and Mogk, D., 1986, Late Archean tectonic emplacement of the Stillwater Complex along reactivated basement structures, northern Beartooth Mountains, Southern Montana , USA, in Laughlin, M. A. a. A., ed., VI International Basement Tectonics Symposium, p. 25-44.
    • Horan, M. F., Morgan, J. W., Walker, R. J., and Cooper, R. W., 2001, Re-Os isotopic constraints on magma mixing in the Peridotite Zone of the Stillwater Complex, Montana, USA: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 141, no. 4, p. 446-457.
    • Irvine, T. N., Keith, D. W., and Todd, S. G., 1983, The J-M Platinum-Palladium Reef of the Stillwater Complex, Montana .2. Origin by Double-Diffusive Convective Magma Mixing and Implications for the Bushveld Complex: Economic Geology, v. 78, no. 7, p. 1287-1334.
    • Jackson, E. D., 1962, Stratigraphic and Lateral Variation of Chromite Compositions in Stillwater Complex: American Mineralogist, v. 47, no. 1-2, p. 193
    • Jackson, E. D., 1966, Chemical Variation in Coexisting Chromite and Olivine in Chromitite Zones of Stillwater Complex: Economic Geology, v. 61, no. 4, p. 794.
    • Lambert, D. D., Walker, R. J., Morgan, J. W., Shirey, S. B., Carlson, R. W., Zientek, M. L., Lipin, B. R., Koski, M. S., and Cooper, R. L., 1994, Re-Os and Sm-Nd Isotope Geochemistry of the Stillwater Complex, Montana - Implications for the Petrogenesis of the J-M Reef: Journal of Petrology, v. 35, no. 6, p. 1717-1753.
    • Loferski, P. J., Arculus, R. J., and Czamanske, G. K., 1994, Rare-Earth Element Evidence for the Petrogenesis of the Banded Series of the Stillwater Complex, Montana, and Its Anorthosites: Journal of Petrology, v. 35, no. 6, p. 1623-1649.
    • Longhi, J., Wooden, J. L., and Coppinger, K. D., 1983, The Petrology of High-Mg Dikes from the Beartooth Mountains, Montana - a Search for the Parent Magma of the Stillwater Complex: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 88, p. B53-B69.
    • Nunes, P. D., 1981, The age of the Stillwater Complex - A comparison of U-Pb zircon and Sm-Nd isochron systematics: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 45, no. 10, p. 1961-1963.
    • Page, N. J., 1977, Stillwater Complex, Montana; rock succession, metamorphism and structure of the complex and adjacent rocks: US Govt. Print. Off., 2330-7102.
    • Page, N. J., 1979, Stillwater Complex, Montana: Structure, mineralogy, and petrology of the Basal Zone with emphasis on the occurrence of sulfides, Department of the Interior, Geological Survey.
    • Page, N. J., and Zientek, M. L., 1985, Geologic and structural setting of the Stillwater Complex: The Stillwater Complex, Montana: Geology and Guide: Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology Special Publication, v. 92, p. 1-8.
    • Premo, W. R., Helz, R. T., Zientek, M. L., and Langston, R. B., 1990, U-Pb and Sm-Nd Ages for the Stillwater Complex and Its Associated Sills and Dikes, Beartooth Mountains, Montana - Identification of a Parent Magma: Geology, v. 18, no. 11, p. 1065-1068.
    • Raedeke, L. D., and Mccallum, I. S., 1984, Investigations in the Stillwater Complex .2. Petrology and Petrogenesis of the Ultramafic Series: Journal of Petrology, v. 25, no. 2, p. 395-
    • Thacker, J. O., Lageson, D. R., and Mogk, D. W., 2017, Subsurface structural and mineralogical characterization of the Laramide South Prairie fault in the Stillwater Complex, Beartooth Mountains, Montana: Lithosphere, v. 9, no. 1, p. 100-116.
    • Wall, C. J., and Scoates, J. S., 2016, HIGH-PRECISION U-Pb ZIRCON-BADDELEYITE DATING OF THE J-M REEF PLATINUM GROUP ELEMENT DEPOSIT IN THE STILLWATER COMPLEX, MONTANA (USA): Economic Geology, v. 111, no. 3, p. 771-782.
    • Wooden, J. L., Czamanske, G. K., and Zientek, M. L., 1991, A Lead Isotopic Study of the Stillwater Complex, Montana - Constraints on Crustal Contamination and Source Regions: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 107, no. 1, p. 80-93.

    Stillwater Contact Aureole

    • Frost, B. R., 1982, Contact Metamorphic Effects of the Stillwater Complex, Montana - the Concordant Iron-Formation - a Discussion of the Role of Buffering in Metamorphism of Iron-Formation: American Mineralogist, v. 67, no. 1-2, p. 142-148.
    • Labotka, T. C., and Kath, R. L., 2001, Petrogenesis of the contact-metamorphic rocks beneath the Stillwater Complex, Montana: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 113, no. 10, p. 1312-1323.
    • Labotka, T. C., Vaniman, D. T., and Papike, J. J., 1982, Contact Metamorphic Effects of the Stillwater Complex, Montana - the Concordant Iron-Formation - a Reply to the Role of Buffering in Metamorphism of Iron-Formation: American Mineralogist, v. 67, no. 1-2, p. 149-152.
    • Thomson, J. A., 2008, Beneath the Stillwater Complex: Petrology and geochemistry of quartz-plagioclase-cordierite (or garnet)-orthopyroxene-biotite +/- spinel hornfels, Mountain View area, Montana: American Mineralogist, v. 93, no. 2-3, p. 438-450.
    • Vaniman, D. T., Papike, J. J., and Labotka, T., 1980, Contact-Metamorphic Effects of the Stillwater Complex, Montana - the Concordant Iron Formation: American Mineralogist, v. 65, no. 11-1, p. 1087-1102.

    Paleoproterozoic Geology of the Wyoming Craton

    (Including Role in Supercontinents)

    • Hoffman, P. F., 1988, United plates of America, the birth of a craton: Early Proterozoic assembly and growth of Laurentia: Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, v. 16, no. 1, p. 543-603.
    • Houston, R. S., 1992, Proterozoic Mineral-Deposits near Plate Margins of the Archean Wyoming Province, USA: Precambrian Research, v. 58, no. 1-4, p. 85-97.
    • Karlstrom, K. E., and Bowring, S. A., 1988, EARLY PROTEROZOIC ASSEMBLY OF TECTONOSTRATIGRAPHIC TERRANES IN SOUTHWESTERN NORTH-AMERICA: Journal of Geology, v. 96, no. 5, p. 561-576.
    • Kilian, T. M., Bleeker, W., Chamberlain, K., Evans, D. A. D., and Cousens, B., 2016, Palaeomagnetism, geochronology and geochemistry of the Palaeoproterozoic Rabbit Creek and Powder River dyke swarms: implications for Wyoming in supercraton Superia: Geological Society, London, Special Publications, v. 424, no. 1, p. 15-45.
    • Kilian, T. M., Chamberlain, K. R., Evans, D. A. D., Bleeker, W., and Cousens, B. L., 2016, Wyoming on the runâ€"Toward final Paleoproterozoic assembly of Laurentia: Geology, v. 44, no. 10, p. 863-866.
    • Mueller, P. A., Shuster, R. D., Darcy, K. A., Heatherington, A. L., Nutman, A. P., and Williams, I. S., 1995, Source of the Northeastern Idaho Batholith - Isotopic Evidence for a Paleoproterozoic Terrane in the Northwestern Us: Journal of Geology, v. 103, no. 1, p. 63-72.

    Tobacco Root-Ruby Ranges-Highland-Tendoy Ranges-Armstead Anticline

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    • Alcock, J., Muller, P. D., and Jercinovic, M. J., 2013, Monazite ages and pressureâ€"temperatureâ€"time paths from anatectites in the southern Ruby Range, Montana, USA: evidence for delamination, ultramafic magmatism, and rapid uplift at ca. 1780 Ma: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 50, no. 11, p. 1069-1084.
    • Brady, J. B., Burger, H. R., Cheney, J. T., and Harms, T. A., 2004: Precambrian Geology of the Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana: Geological Society of America Special Paper, v. 377, p. 256.
    • Burger, H. R., Peck, W. H., Johnson, K. E., Tierney, K. A., Poulsen, C. J., Cady, P., Lowell, J., MacFarlane, W. A., Sincock, M. J., and Archuleta, L. L., 2004, Geology and geochemistry of the Spuhler Peak Metamorphic Suite: SPECIAL PAPERS-GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, p. 47-70.
    • Cheney, J. T., Alexander, A., Webb, G., Coath, C. D., McKeegan, K. D., Brady, J. B., Burger, H. R., and Harms, T. A., 2004, In situ ion microprobe^ 2^ 0^ 7Pb/^ 2^ 0^ 6Pb dating of monazite from Precambrian metamorphic suites, Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana: SPECIAL PAPERS-GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, p. 151-180.
    • Cheney, J. T., Brady, J. B., Tierney, K. A., DeGraff, K. A., Mohlman, H. K., Frisch, J. D., Hatch, C. E., Steiner, M. L., Carmichael, S. K., and Fisher, R. G. M., 2004, Proterozoic metamorphism of the Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana: SPECIAL PAPERS-GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, p. 105-130.
    • Dahl, P. S., 1979, Comparative geothermometry based on major-element and oxygen isotope distributions in Precambrian metamorphic rocks from southwestern Montana: American Mineralogist, v. 64, no. 11-12, p. 1280-1293.
    • Harlan, S. S., Geissman, J. W., and Snee, L. W., 1997, Paleomagnetic and 40Ar/39Ar geochronologic data from Late Proterozoic mafic dikes and sills, Montana and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Special Paper, v. 1580, p. 1-16.
    • Harlan, S. S., Geissman, J. W., and Snee, L. W., 2008, Paleomagnetism of Proterozoic mafic dikes from the Tobacco Root Mountains, southwest Montana: Precambrian Research, v. 163, no. 3-4, p. 239-264.
    • Harms, T. A., Burger, H.R., Blednick D.G., Cooper, J. M., King, T., Owen, D. R., Lowell, J., Sincock, M. J., Kranenbrg, S. R., Pufall, A., Picornell, C. M., 2004, Advances in the geology of the Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana, and their implications for the history of the northern Wyoming Province: Precambrian Geology of the Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana, v. 377, p. 227.
    • Harms, T. A., Burger, H. R., Blednick, D. G., Cooper, J. M., King, J. T., Owen, D. R., Lowell, J., Sincock, M. J., Kranenburg, S. R., and Pufall, A., 2004, Character and origin of Precambrian fabrics and structures in the Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana: SPECIAL PAPERS-GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, p. 203-226.
    • Karasevich, L. P., Garihan, J. M., Dahl, P. S., and Okuma, A. F., 1981, Summary of Precambrian metamorphic and structural history, Ruby Range, southwest Montana.
    • Krogh, T. E., Kamo, S.L., Hanley, T. B., Hess, D. F., Dahl, P. S., Johnson, R. E., 2011, Geochronology and geochemistry of Precambrian gneisses, metabasites, and pegmatite from the Tobacco Root Mountains, northwestern Wyoming craton, Montana. Special Issue on the theme of Geochronology in honour of Tom Krogh.T.E. Krogh deceased April 2008: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 48, no. 2, p. 161-185.
    • Mueller, P., Mogk, D., and Wooden, J., 2012, Age and composition of crystalline basement in the Armstead Anticline, southwestern Montana: Northwest Geology, v. 41, p. 63-70.
    • Muller, P. D., and Jercinovic, M. J., 2013, Monazite ages and pressureâ€"temperatureâ€"time paths from anatectites in the southern Ruby Range, Montana, USA: evidence for delamination, ultramafic magmatism, and rapid uplift at ca. 1780 Ma: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 50, no. 11, p. 1069-1084.
    • O'Neill, M.J., 1995, Early Proterozoic geology of the Highland Mountains, southwestern Monrtana and field guide to the basement rocks that compose the Highland Mountain gneiss dome: Northwest Geology, v. 24, p. 85-97.
    • Roberts, H., Dahl, P., Kelley, S., and Frei, R., 2002, New Pb-207-Pb-206 and Ar-40-Ar-39 ages from SW Montana, USA: constraints on the Proterozoic and Archaean tectonic and depositional history of the Wyoming Province: Precambrian Research, v. 117, no. 1-2, p. 119-143.

    Madison Range/Spanish Peaks

    • Erslev, E. A., 1982, The Madison mylonite zone: A major shear zone in the Archean basement of southwestern Montana.
    • Erslev, E. A., 1983, Pre-Beltian geology of the southern Madison Range, southwestern Montana: Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology Memoir SS, 26 p. 1986: Basement balancing of Rocky Mountain foreland uplifts: Geology, v. 14, p. 259-262.
    • Erslev, E. A., and Sutter, J. F., 1990, Evidence for Proterozoic Mylonitization in the Northwestern Wyoming Province: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 102, no. 12, p. 1681-1694.
    • Johnson, J. E., West, D. P., Condit, C. B., and Mahan, K. H., 2014, Strain localization in the Spanish Creek mylonite, Northern Madison Range, southwest Montana, U.S.A: Rocky Mountain Geology, v. 49, no. 2, p. 91-114.
    • Kellogg, K. S., and Mogk, D. W., 2009, Structural development of high-temperature mylonites in the Archean Wyoming province, northwestern Madison Range, Montana: Rocky Mountain Geology, v. 44, no. 2, p. 85-102.
    • Mueller, P. A., Shuster, R. D., Wooden, J. L., Erslev, E. A., and Bowes, D. R., 1993, Age and Composition of Archean Crystalline Rocks from the Southern Madison Range, Montana - Implications for Crustal Evolution in the Wyoming Craton: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 105, no. 4, p. 437-446.
    • Mueller, P. A., Wooden, J. L., and Mogk, D. W., 2011, 2450 Ma metamorphism recorded in 3250 Ma gneisses, Gallatin Range, Montana: Northwest Geology, v. 40, p. 1-7.

    Great Falls Tectonic Zone/Western Wyoming Craton/Little Belt Mountains/Little Rocky Mountains (Archean)

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    • Boerner, D. E., Craven, J. A., Kurtz, R. D., Ross, G. M., and Jones, F. W., 1998, The Great Falls Tectonic Zone: suture or intracontinental shear zone?: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 35, no. 2, p. 175-183.
    • Catanzaro, E. J., and Kulp, J. L., 1964, Discordant Zircons from the Little Belt (Montana), Beartooth (Montana) and Santa Catalina (Arizona) Mountains: Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 28, no. Jan, p. 87-&.
    • Condit, C. B., and Mahan, K. H., 2018, Fracturing, fluid flow and shear zone development: Relationships between chemical and mechanical processes in Proterozoic mafic dykes from southwestern Montana, USA: Journal of Metamorphic Geology, v. 36, no. 2, p. 195-223.
    • Condit, C. B., Mahan, K. H., Ault, A. K., and Flowers, R. M., 2015, Foreland-directed propagation of high-grade tectonism in the deep roots of a Paleoproterozoic collisional orogen, SW Montana, USA: Lithosphere, v. 7, no. 6, p. 625-645.
    • Davis, W. J., Berman, R., Kjarsgaard, B., and Ross, G. M., Uâ€"Pb geochronology and isotopic studies of crustal xenoliths from the Archean Medicine Hat block, northern Montana and southern Alberta: Paleoproterozoic reworking of Archean crust1995, Volume 47, p. 330-335
    • Foster, D. A., Mueller, P. A., Heatherington, A., Gifford, J. N., and Kalakay, T. J., 2012, Luâ€"Hf systematics of magmatic zircons reveal a Proterozoic crustal boundary under the Cretaceous Pioneer batholith, Montana: Lithos, v. 142, p. 216-225.
    • Foster, D. A., Mueller, P. A., Mogk, D. W., Wooden, J. L., and Vogl, J. J., 2006, Proterozoic evolution of the western margin of the Wyoming craton: Implications for the tectonic and magmatic evolution of the northern Rocky Mountains: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 43, no. 10, p. 1601-1619.
    • Gifford, J. N., Mueller, P. A., Foster, D. A., and Mogk, D. W., 2014, Precambrian Crustal Evolution in the Great Falls Tectonic Zone: Insights from Xenoliths from the Montana Alkali Province: The Journal of Geology, v. 122, no. 5, p. 531-548.
    • Gifford, J. N., Mueller, P. A., Foster, D. A., and Mogk, D. W., 2018, Extending the realm of Archean crust in the Great Falls tectonic zone: Evidence from the Little Rocky Mountains, Montana: Precambrian Research, v. 315, p. 264-281.
    • Harms, T. A., Burger, H.R., Blednick D.G., Cooper, J. M., King, T., Owen, D. R., Lowell, J., Sincock, M. J., Kranenbrg, S. R., Pufall, A., Picornell, C. M., 2004, Advances in the geology of the Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana, and their implications for the history of the northern Wyoming Province: Precambrian Geology of the Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana, v. 377, p. 227.
    • Harms, T. A., Burger, H. R., Blednick, D. G., Cooper, J. M., King, J. T., Owen, D. R., Lowell, J., Sincock, M. J., Kranenburg, S. R., and Pufall, A., 2004, Character and origin of Precambrian fabrics and structures in the Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana: SPECIAL PAPERS-GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, p. 203-226.
    • O'Neill, J. M., and Lopez, D. A., 1985, Character and regional significance of Great Falls tectonic zone, east-central Idaho and west-central Montana: AAPG Bulletin, v. 69, no. 3, p. 437-447.
    • O'Neill, J. M., and Berg, R. B., The Great Falls tectonic zone, Montanaâ€"Idaho: an early Proterozoic collisional orogen beneath and south of the Belt Basin1998 1995, Volume 112, p. 222-228.
    • Peterman, Z. E., 1981, Archean gneisses in the Little Rocky Mountains, Montana, US Government Printing Office, Shorter Contributions to Isotope Research in the Western United States U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 1199 A-E, p.1-6.

    Cheyenne Belt & S. Wyoming

    • Bekker, A., and Eriksson, K. A., 2003, A Paleoproterozoic drowned carbonate platform on the southeastern margin of the Wyoming Craton: a record of the Kenorland breakup: Precambrian Research, v. 120, no. 3-4, p. 327-364.
    • Chamberlain, K. R., Patel, S. C., Frost, B. R., and Snyder, G. L., 1993, Thick-Skinned Deformation of the Archean Wyoming Province during Proterozoic Arc-Continent Collision: Geology, v. 21, no. 11, p. 995-998.
    • Crosswhite, J. A., and Humphreys, E. D., 2003, Imaging the mountainless root of the 1.8 Ga Cheyenne belt suture and clues to its tectonic stability: Geology, v. 31, no. 8, p. 669-672.
    • Duebendorfer, E. M., Chamberlain, K. R., and Heizler, M. T., 2006, Filling the North American Proterozoic tectonic gap: 1.60-1.59-Ga deformation and orogenesis in southern Wyoming, USA: Journal of Geology, v. 114, no. 1, p. 19-42.
    • Johnson, R. A., Karlstrom, K. E., Smithson, S. B., and Houston, R. S., 1984, GRAVITY PROFILES ACROSS THE CHEYENNE BELT, A PRECAMBRIAN CRUSTAL SUTURE IN SOUTHEASTERN WYOMING: Journal of Geodynamics, v. 1, no. 3-5, p. 445-472.
    • Jones, D. S., Snoke, A. W., Premo, W. R., and Chamberlain, K. R., 2010, New models for Paleoproterozoic orogenesis in the Cheyenne belt region: Evidence from the geology and U-Pb geochronology of the Big Creek Gneiss, southeastern Wyoming: Bulletin, v. 122, no. 11-12, p. 1877-1898.
    • Karlstrom, K. E., and Houston, R. S., 1984, THE CHEYENNE BELT - ANALYSIS OF A PROTEROZOIC SUTURE IN SOUTHERN WYOMING: Precambrian Research, v. 25, no. 4, p. 415-446.
    • Morozova, E., Wan, X., Chamberlain, K. R., Smithson, S. B., Morozov, I. B., Boyd, N. K., Johnson, R. A., Karlstrom, K. E., Tyson, A. R., and Foster, C. T., 2002, Geometry of Proterozoic sutures in the central Rocky Mountains from seismic reflection data: Cheyenne belt and Farwell Mountain structures: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 29, no. 13.
    • Morozova, E. A., Wan, X., Chamberlain, K. R., Smithson, S. B., Johnson, R., and Karlstrom, K. E., 2005, Inter-Wedging Nature of the Cheyenne Belt-Archean-Proterozoic Suture Defined by Seismic Reflection Data, in Karlstrom, K. E., and Keller, G. R., eds., Rocky Mountain Region: An Evolving Lithosphere: Tectonics, Geochemistry, and Geophysics, Volume 154, p. 217-226.

    Priest River/Clearwater/Western Wyoming Craton

    • Doughty, P. T., and Chamberlain, K. R., 2008, Protolith age and timing of Precambrian magmatic and metamorphic events in the Priest River complex, northern Rockies: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 45, no. 1, p. 99-116.
    • Doughty, P. T., Chamberlain, K. R., Foster, D. A., and Grant, S. S., 2007, Structural, metamorphic, and geochronologic constraints on the origin of the Clearwater core complex, northern Idaho: Geological Society of America Special Papers, v. 433, p. 211-241.
    • Doughty, P. T., Chamberlain, K. R., Link, P. K., and Lewis, R. S., 2006, Age of Paleoproterozoic basement and related rocks in the Clearwater complex, northern Idaho, USA: SPECIAL PUBLICATION-SEPM, v. 86, p. 9.
    • Gaschnig, R. M., Vervoort, J. D., Lewis, R. S., and Tikoff, B., 2013, Probing for Proterozoic and Archean crust in the northern US Cordillera with inherited zircon from the Idaho batholith: Bulletin, v. 125, no. 1-2, p. 73-88.
    • Stevens, L. M., Baldwin, J. A., Cottle, J. M., and Kylander‐Clark, A. R. C., 2015, Phase equilibria modelling and LASS monazite petrochronology: Pâ€"Tâ€"t constraints on the evolution of the Priest River core complex, northern Idaho: Journal of Metamorphic Geology, v. 33, no. 4, p. 385-411.
    • Stevens, L. M., Baldwin, J. A., Crowley, J. L., Fisher, C. M., and Vervoort, J. D., 2016, Magmatism as a response to exhumation of the Priest River complex, northern Idaho: Constraints from zircon Uâ€"Pb geochronology and Hf isotopes: Lithos, v. 262, p. 285-297.
    • Vervoort, J. D., Lewis, R. S., Fisher, C., Gaschnig, R. M., Jansen, A. C., and Brewer, R., 2016, Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic crystalline basement rocks of north-central Idaho: Constraints on the formation of western Laurentia: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 128, no. 1-2, p. 94-109.

    Black Hills (including Late Archean and THO)

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    • Baird, D. J., Nelson, K.D., Knapp, J.H., Walters, J.J. and Brown, L.D.,, 1996, Crustal structure and evolution of the Trans‐Hudson orogen: Results from seismic reflection profiling: Tectonics, v. 15, no. 2, p. 416-426.
      Lewry, J. F., and Stauffer, M.R., 1990, The Early Proterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen of North America, Geological Association of Canada.
    • Dahl, P. S., and Foland, K. A., 2008, Concentric slow cooling of a low-P-high-T terrane: Evidence from 1600-1300 Ma mica dates in the 1780-1700 Ma Black Hills Orogen, South Dakota, USA: American Mineralogist, v. 93, no. 8-9, p. 1215-1229.
    • Dahl, P. S., Holm, D. K., Gardner, E. T., Hubacher, F. A., and Foland, K. A., 1999, New constraints on the timing of Early Proterozoic tectonism in the Black Hills (South Dakota), with implications for docking of the Wyoming province with Laurentia: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 111, no. 9, p. 1335-1349.
    • Frei, R., Dahl, P. S., Duke, E. F., Frei, K. M., Hansen, T. R., Frandsson, M. M., and Jensen, L. A., 2008, Trace element and isotopic characterization of Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic iron formations in the Black Hills (South Dakota, USA): Assessment of chemical change during 2.9-1.9 Ga deposition bracketing the 2.4-2.2 Ga first rise of atmospheric oxygen: Precambrian Research, v. 162, no. 3-4, p. 441-474.
    • Frei, R., Dahl, P. S., Frandsson, M. M., Jensen, L. A., Hansen, T. R., Terry, M. P., and Frei, K. M., 2009, Lead-isotope and trace-element geochemistry of Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks in the Lead and Rochford basins (Black Hills, South Dakota, USA): Implications for genetic models, mineralization ages, and sources of leads in the Homestake gold deposit: Precambrian Research, v. 172, no. 1-2, p. 1-24.
    • Klasner, J. S., & King, E. R. (1986). Precambrian basement geology of North and South Dakota. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 23(8), 1083-1102.
    • McCombs, J. A., Dahl, P. S., and Hamilton, M. A., 2004, U-Pb ages of Neoarchean granitoids from the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA: implications for crustal evolution in the Archean Wyoming province: Precambrian Research, v. 130, no. 1-4, p. 161-184.
    • Nabelek, P. I., Liu, M., and Sirbescu, M. L., 2001, Thermo-rheological, shear heating model for leucogranite generation, metamorphism, and deformation during the Proterozoic Trans-Hudson orogeny, Black Hills, South Dakota: Tectonophysics, v. 342, no. 3-4, p. 371-388.
    • Nabelek, P.I., Labotka, T.C., Helms, T.S. & Wilke, M., 2006. Fluid-mediated polymetamorphism related to Proterozoic collision of Archean Wyoming and Superior provinces in the Black Hills, South Dakota. American Mineralogist, 91, 1473-1487
    • Nabelek, P. I., and Chen, Y., 2014, The initial garnet-in reaction involving siderite-rhodochrosite, garnet re-equilibration and P-T-t paths of graphitic schists in the Black Hills orogen, South Dakota, USA: Journal of Metamorphic Geology, v. 32, no. 2, p. 133-150.
    • Nelson, K. D., Baird, D. J., Walters, J. J., Hauck, M., Brown, L. D., Oliver, J. E., Ahern, J. L., Hajnal, Z., Jones, A. G., and Sloss, L. L., 1993, Trans-Hudson Orogen and Williston Basin in Montana and North-Dakota - New Cocorp Deep-Profiling Results: Geology, v. 21, no. 5, p. 447-450.
    • Van Boening, A. M., and Nabelek, P. I., 2008, Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of paleoproterozoic mafic rocks in the Black Hills, South Dakota: Precambrian Research, v. 167, no. 3-4, p. 363-376.

    Mesoproterozoic (Belt Basin)

    • Anderson, D. L., Mogk, D. W., and Childs, J. F., 1990, Petrogenesis and timing of talc formation in the Ruby Range, southwestern Montana: Economic Geology, v. 85, no. 3, p. 585-600.
    • Bedrosian, P. A., and Box, S. E., 2016, Highly conductive horizons in the Mesoproterozoic Belt-Purcell Basin: Sulfidic early basin strata as key markers of Cordilleran shortening and Eocene extension: Geological Society of America Special Papers, v. 522, p. 305-339.
    • Graham, G., Hitzman, M. W., and Zieg, J., 2012, Geologic setting, sedimentary architecture, and paragenesis of the Mesoproterozoic sediment-hosted Sheep Creek Cu-Co-Ag deposit, Helena Embayment, Montana: Economic Geology, v. 107, no. 6, p. 1115-1141.
    • Mueller, P., Mogk, D., Wooden, J., and Spake, D., 2016, U-Pb ages of zircons from the Lower Belt Supergroup and proximal crystalline basement: Implications for the early evolution of the Belt Basin: Geological Society of America Special Papers, v. 522, p. SPE522-511.
    • Sears, J. W., Chamberlain, K. R., and Buckley, S. N., 1998, Structural and U-Pb geochronological evidence for 1.47 Ga rifting in the Belt basin, western Montana: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 35, no. 4, p. 467-475.
    • Zieg, G. A., Leitch, C. H. B., and Berg, R. B., 1999, The geology of the Sheep Creek copper deposits: Meagher County, Montana: Butte, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, MBMG Open-File Report, v. 381, p. 67-69.

    Neoproterozoic

    • Burtis, E. W., Sears, J. W., Chamberlain, K. R., Link, P. K., and Lewis, R. S., 2006, Age and petrology of Neoproterozoic intrusions in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA: Correlation with the Gunbarrel magmatic event: SPECIAL PUBLICATION-SEPM, v. 86, p. 175.

    Phanerozoic Geology of the Wyoming Craton

    • Stewart, J. H., 1972, Initial deposits in the Cordilleran geosyncline: Evidence of a late Precambrian (
    • Tonnsen, J. J., 1985, Paleotectonic Influence of Precambrian Wyoming Province and Adjacent Terranes on Phanerozoic Sedimentation on Western Cratonic Shelf: Aapg Bulletin-American Association of Petroleum Geologists, v. 69, no. 5, p. 869-869.

    Sedimentary Basins

    • Clark, D. M., 1991, Structural Relationship of the Beartooth Mountains and Big Horn Basin in South-Central Montana and Northwestern Wyoming: AAPG Bulletin-American Association of Petroleum Geologists, v. 75, no. 6, p. 1124-1124.
    • Decelles, P. G., Gray, M. B., Ridgway, K. D., Cole, R. B., Pivnik, D. A., Pequera, N., and Srivastava, P., 1991, Controls on Synorogenic Alluvial-Fan Architecture, Beartooth Conglomerate (Paleocene), Wyoming and Montana: Sedimentology, v. 38, no. 4, p. 567-590.
    • Decelles, P. G., Gray, M. B., Ridgway, K. D., Cole, R. B., Srivastava, P., Pequera, N., and Pivnik, D. A., 1991, Kinematic History of a Foreland Uplift from Paleocene Synorogenic Conglomerate, Beartooth Range, Wyoming and Montana: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 103, no. 11, p. 1458-1475.

    Laramide Orogeny

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    • Casella, C. J., 1964, Geologic Evolution of the Beartooth Mountains, Montana and Wyoming. Part.4. Relationship between Precambrian and Laramide Structures in the Line Creek Area: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 75, no. 10, p. 969-986.
    • Foose, R. M., Wise, D. U., and Garbarini, G. S., 1961, Structural Geology of the Beartooth Mountains, Montana and Wyoming: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 72, no. 8, p. 1143-1172.
    • Lageson, D. R., 1989, Reactivation of a Proterozoic continental margin, Bridger Range, southwestern Montana, 1989 Field Conference Guidebook: Montana Centennial Edition, Montana Geological Society, p. 279-298.
    • Neely, T. G., and Erslev, E. A., 2009, The interplay of fold mechanisms and basement weaknesses at the transition between Laramide basement-involved arches, north-central Wyoming, USA: Journal of Structural Geology, v. 31, no. 9, p. 1012-1027.
    • O'Connell, P., 1991, Kinematics of the Eastern Flank of the Beartooth Mountains, Montana and Wyoming: AAPG Bulletin-American Association of Petroleum Geologists, v. 75, no. 3, p. 648-648.
    • Omar, G. I., Lutz, T. M., and Giegengack, R., 1994, Apatite Fission-Track Evidence for Laramide and Postlaramide Uplift and Anomalous Thermal Regime at the Beartooth Overthrust, Montana-Wyoming: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 106, no. 1, p. 74-85.
    • Schmidt, C.J., chase, R. B., and Erslev, E. A., 1993, Laramide Basement Deformation in the Rocky Mountain Foreland of the Western United States, GSA Special Paper 280.
    • Spang, J. H., 1986, Geometry of Basement-Cored Structures Using Reasonable Rheological Models for Basement Deformation in Wyoming Province: Aapg Bulletin-American Association of Petroleum Geologists, v. 70, no. 8, p. 1057-1057.
    • Spang, J. H., and Evans, J. P., 1984, Basement Fault Configurations, Wyoming Province: Aapg Bulletin-American Association of Petroleum Geologists, v. 68, no. 7, p. 950-950.
    • Thacker, J. O., Lageson, D. R., and Mogk, D. W., 2017, Subsurface structural and mineralogical characterization of the Laramide South Prairie fault in the Stillwater Complex, Beartooth Mountains, Montana: Lithosphere, v. 9, no. 1, p. 100-116.
    • Wise, D. U., 2000, Laramide structures in basement and cover of the Beartooth uplift near Red Lodge, Montana: Aapg Bulletin-American Association of Petroleum Geologists, v. 84, no. 3, p. 360-375.
    • Worthington, L. L., Miller, K. C., Erslev, E. A., Anderson, M. L., Chamberlain, K. R., Sheehan, A. F., Yeck, W. L., Harder, S. H., and Siddoway, C. S., 2016, Crustal structure of the Bighorn Mountains region: Precambrian influence on Laramide shortening and uplift in north‐central Wyoming: Tectonics, v. 35, no. 1, p. 208-236.

    Sevier Orogeny

    • Lageson, D. R., and Schmitt, J. G., The Sevier orogenic belt of the western United States: Recent advances in understanding its structural and sedimentologic framework1994, Rocky Mountain Section (SEPM)

    Basin and Range

    • Stickney, M. C., and Bartholomew, M. J., 1987, Seismicity and late Quaternary faulting of the northern Basin and Range Province, Montana and Idaho: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 77, no. 5, p. 1602-1625

    Cenozoic Volcanism

    • Eggler, D. H., Meen, J. K., Welt, F., Dudas, F. O., Furlong, K. P., Mccallum, M. E., and Carlson, R. W., 1988, Tectonomagmatism of the Wyoming Province: Colorado School of Mines Quarterly, v. 83, no. 2, p. 25-40.

    Abasaroka Volcanics

    • Chadwick, R. A., 1970, Belts of eruptive centers in the Absaroka-Gallatin volcanic province, Wyoming-Montana: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 81, no. 1, p. 267-274.
    • Feeley, T. C., 2003, Origin and tectonic implications of across-strike geochemical variations in the Eocene Absaroka volcanic province, United States: Journal of Geology, v. 111, no. 3, p. 329-346.
    • Feeley, T. C., and Cosca, M. A., 2003, Time vs. composition trends of magmatism at Sunlight volcano, Absaroka volcanic province, Wyoming: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 115, no. 6, p. 714-728.
    • Feeley, T. C., Cosca, M. A., and Lindsay, C. R., 2002, Petrogenesis and implications of calc-alkaline cryptic hybrid magmas from Washburn volcano, Absaroka Volcanic Province, USA: Journal of Petrology, v. 43, no. 4, p. 663-703.
    • Harlan, S. S., Snee, L. W., and Geissman, J. W., 1996, Ar-40/Ar-39 geochronology and paleomagnetism of Independence volcano, Absaroka Volcanic Supergroup, Beartooth Mountains, Montana: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 33, no. 12, p. 1648-1654.
    • Meen, J. K., and Eggler, D. H., 1989, Chemical and Isotopic Compositions of Absaroka Granitoids, Southwestern Montana - Evidence for Deep-Seated Archean Amphibolite Basement in the Beartooth Region: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 102, no. 4, p. 462-477.

    Western Margin of the Wyoming Craton

    • Christian Stanciu, A., Russo, R. M., Mocanu, V. I., Bremner, P. M., Hongsresawat, S., Torpey, M. E., VanDecar, J. C., Foster, D. A., and Hole, J. A., 2016, Crustal structure beneath the Blue Mountains terranes and cratonic North America, eastern Oregon, and Idaho, from teleseismic receiver functions: Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, v. 121, no. 7, p. 5049-5067.

    Neotectonics/Rocky Mountain Seismic Belt

    • Stickney, M. C., and Bartholomew, M. J., 1987, Seismicity and late Quaternary faulting of the northern Basin and Range Province, Montana and Idaho: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 77, no. 5, p. 1602-1625.

    Yellowstone-Snake River Plain

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    • Brueseke, M. E., Downey, A. C., Dodd, Z. C., Hart, W. K., Adams, D. C., and Benowitz, J. A., 2018, The leading wisps of Yellowstone: Post-ca. 5 Ma extension-related magmatism in the upper Wind River Basin, Wyoming (USA), associated with the Yellowstone hotspot tectonic parabola: Geosphere, v. 14, no. 1, p. 74-94.
    • Brueseke, M. E., Hart, W. K., and Heizler, M. T., 2008, Diverse mid-Miocene silicic volcanism associated with the Yellowstone-Newberry thermal anomaly: Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 70, no. 3, p. 343-360.
    • Christiansen, R.L., 2001. The quaternary and pliocene Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field of Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana (USGS Prof Paper No. 729-G).
    • DeNosaquo, K. R., Smith, R. B., and Lowry, A. R., 2009, Density and lithospheric strength models of the Yellowstoneâ€"Snake River Plain volcanic system from gravity and heat flow data: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 188, no. 1-3, p. 108-127.
    • Ellis, B. S., Wolff, J. A., Boroughs, S., Mark, D. F., Starkel, W. A., and Bonnichsen, B., 2013, Rhyolitic volcanism of the central Snake River Plain: a review: Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 75, no. 8, p. 745.
    • Hanan, B. B., Shervais, J. W., and Vetter, S. K., 2008, Yellowstone plume-continental lithosphere interaction beneath the Snake River Plain: Geology, v. 36, no. 1, p. 51-54.
    • Hildreth, W., Halliday, A. N., and Christiansen, R. L., 1991, Isotopic and Chemical Evidence Concerning the Genesis and Contamination of Basaltic and Rhyolitic Magma beneath the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field: Journal of Petrology, v. 32, no. 1, p. 63-138.
    • Kuntz, M. A., Covington, H. R., and Schorr, L. J., 1992, An overview of basaltic volcanism of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho: Regional Geology of Eastern Idaho and Western Wyoming: Geological Society of America Memoir, v. 179, p. 227-267.
    • Leeman, W. P., Menzies, M. A., Matty, D. J., and Embree, G. F., 1985, Strontium, neodymium and lead isotopic compositions of deep crustal xenoliths from the Snake River Plain: evidence for Archean basement: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 75, no. 4, p. 354-368.
    • Leeman, W. P., Sisson, V. B., and Reid, M. R., 1992, Boron geochemistry of the lower crust: evidence from granulite terranes and deep crustal xenoliths: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 56, no. 2, p. 775-788.
    • Schmandt, B., Dueker, K., Humphreys, E., and Hansen, S., 2012, Hot mantle upwelling across the 660 beneath Yellowstone: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 331, p. 224-236.
    • Yuan, H. Y., Dueker, K., and Stachnik, J., 2010, Crustal structure and thickness along the Yellowstone hot spot track: Evidence for lower crustal outflow from beneath the eastern Snake River Plain: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, v. 11.

    Geophysical Research: Seismic, Heat Flow, Magnetotellurics

    Crustal Structure (geophysical imaging--seismic, gravity, magnetic)

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    • Clowes, R. M., Burianyk, M. J. A., Gorman, A. R., and Kanasewich, E. R., 2002, Crustal velocity structure from SAREX, the southern Alberta refraction experiment: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 39, no. 3, p. 351-373.
    • Christian Stanciu, A., Russo, R. M., Mocanu, V. I., Bremner, P. M., Hongsresawat, S., Torpey, M. E., VanDecar, J. C., Foster, D. A., and Hole, J. A., 2016, Crustal structure beneath the Blue Mountains terranes and cratonic North America, eastern Oregon, and Idaho, from teleseismic receiver functions: Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, v. 121, no. 7, p. 5049-5067.
    • Gorman, A. R., Clowes, R. M., Ellis, R. M., Henstock, T. J., Levander, A., Spence, G. D., Keller, G. R., Miller, K. C., Snelson, C. M., and Burianyk, M. J. A., 2002, Deep Probe: imaging the roots of western North America: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 39, no. 3, p. 375-398.
    • Karlstrom, K. E., Bowring, S. A., Chamberlain, K. R., Dueker, K. G., Eshete, T., Erslev, E. A., Farmer, G. L., Heizler, M., Humphreys, E. D., Johnson, R. A., Keller, G. R., Kelley, S. A., Levander, A., Magnani, M. B., Matzel, J. P., McCoy, A. M., Miller, K. C., Morozova, E. A., Pazzaglia, F. J., Prodehl, C., Rumpel, H. M., Shaw, C. A., Sheehan, A. F., Shoshitaishvili, E., Smithson, S. B., Snelson, C. M., Stevens, L. M., Tyson, A. R., and Williams, M. L., 2002, Structure and evolution of the lithosphere beneath the Rocky Mountains initial results from the CD-ROM experiment: GSA Today, v. 12, no. 3, p. 4-10.
    • Karlstrom, K. E., Whitmeyer, S. J., Dueker, K., Williams, M. L., Bowring, S. A., Levander, A., Humphreys, E. D., Keller, G. R., and Grp, C.-R. W., 2005, Synthesis of Results From the CD-ROM Experiment: 4-D Image of the Lithosphere Beneath the Rocky Mountains and Implications for Understanding the Evolution of Continental Lithosphere, in Karlstrom, K. E., and Keller, G. R., eds., Rocky Mountain Region: An Evolving Lithosphere: Tectonics, Geochemistry, and Geophysics, Volume 154, p. 421-441.
    • Mahan, K. H., Schulte-Pelkum, V., Blackburn, T. J., Bowring, S. A., and Dudas, F. O., 2012, Seismic structure and lithospheric rheology from deep crustal xenoliths, central Montana, USA: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, v. 13, no. 10.
    • Mickus, K., 2007, Precambrian blocks and orogen boundaries in the north-central United States determined from gravity and magnetic data: Geological Society of America Memoirs, v. 200, p. 327-340.
    • Rumpfhuber, E.-M., and Keller, G. R., 2009, An integrated analysis of controlled and passive source seismic data across an Archean-Proterozoic suture zone in the Rocky Mountains: Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, v. 114.
    • Schulte-Pelkum, V., Mahan, K. H., Shen, W., and Stachnik, J. C., 2017, The distribution and composition of high-velocity lower crust across the continental US: Comparison of seismic and xenolith data and implications for lithospheric dynamics and history: Tectonics, v. 36, no. 8, p. 1455-1496.
    • Snelson, C. M., Henstock, T. J., Keller, G. R., Miller, K. C., and Levander, A., 1998, Crustal and uppermost mantle structure along the Deep Probe seismic profile: Rocky Mountain Geology, v. 33, no. 2, p. 181-198.

    Mantle Structure

    • Abt, D. L., Fischer, K. M., French, S. W., Ford, H. A., Yuan, H., and Romanowicz, B., 2010, North American lithospheric discontinuity structure imaged by Ps and Sp receiver functions: Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, v. 115.
    • Bedle, H., and van der Lee, S., 2006, Fossil flat-slab subduction beneath the Illinois basin, USA: Tectonophysics, v. 424, no. 1-2, p. 53-68.
    • Bedle, H., and van der Lee, S., 2009, S velocity variations beneath North America: Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, v. 114, no. B7.
    • Cooper, C. M., Miller, M. S., and Moresi, L., 2017, The structural evolution of the deep continental lithosphere: Tectonophysics, v. 695, p. 100-121.
    • Hopper, E., Ford, H. A., Fischer, K. M., Lekic, V., and Fouch, M. J., 2014, The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary and the tectonic and magmatic history of the northwestern United States: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 402, p. 69-81.
    • O'Driscoll, L. J., Humphreys, E. D., and Saucier, F., 2009, Subduction adjacent to deep continental roots: Enhanced negative pressure in the mantle wedge, mountain building and continental motion: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 280, no. 1-4, p. 61-70.
    • Schmandt, B., Dueker, K., Humphreys, E., and Hansen, S., 2012, Hot mantle upwelling across the 660 beneath Yellowstone: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 331, p. 224-236.
    • Wang, X., Zhao, D., and Li, J., 2016, The 2013 Wyoming upper mantle earthquakes: Tomography and tectonic implications: Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, v. 121, no. 9, p. 6797-6808.
    • Wu, L., Gu, Y. J., Chen, Y., and Liang, H., 2019, Shear wave splitting discloses two episodes of collision‐related convergence in western North America: Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. DOI: 10.1029/2018JB016352

    Mantle Below the Wyoming Craton

    • Babikoff, J. C., & Dalton, C. A. ( 2019). Long period Rayleigh wave phase velocity tomography using USArray. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 20. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GC008073
    • Dave, R., and Li, A., 2016, Destruction of the Wyoming craton: Seismic evidence and geodynamic processes: Geology, v. 44, no. 11, p. 883-886.
    • Humphreys, E. D., Schmandt, B., Bezada, M. J., and Perry-Houts, J., 2015, Recent craton growth by slab stacking beneath Wyoming: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 429, p. 170-180.
    • Schmandt, B., and Humphreys, E., 2010, Complex subduction and small-scale convection revealed by body-wave tomography of the western United States upper mantle: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 297, no. 3-4, p. 435-445.

    Magnetotellurics

    • Bedrosian, P. A., and Feucht, D. W., 2014, Structure and tectonics of the northwestern United States from EarthScope USArray magnetotelluric data: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 402, p. 275-289.
    • Bedrosian, P. A., and Box, S. E., 2016, Highly conductive horizons in the Mesoproterozoic Belt-Purcell Basin: Sulfidic early basin strata as key markers of Cordilleran shortening and Eocene extension: Geological Society of America Special Papers, v. 522, p. 305-339.
    • Meqbel, N. M., Egbert, G. D., Wannamaker, P. E., Kelbert, A., and Schultz, A., 2014, Deep electrical resistivity structure of the northwestern US derived from 3-D inversion of USArray magnetotelluric data: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 402, p. 290-304.
    • Wannamaker, P. E., Evans, R. L., Bedrosian, P. A., Unsworth, M. J., Maris, V., and McGary, R. S., 2014, Segmentation of plate coupling, fate of subduction fluids, and modes of arc magmatism in C ascadia, inferred from magnetotelluric resistivity: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, v. 15, no. 11, p. 4230-4253.

    Thermal Evolution

    • Blackburn, T., Bowring, S. A., Schoene, B., Mahan, K., and Dudas, F., 2011, U-Pb thermochronology: creating a temporal record of lithosphere thermal evolution: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 162, no. 3, p. 479-500.
    • Blackburn, T. J., Bowring, S. A., Perron, J. T., Mahan, K. H., Dudas, F. O., and Barnhart, K. R., 2012, An Exhumation History of Continents over Billion-Year Time Scales: Science, v. 335, no. 6064, p. 73-76.

    Geodynamics

    • Becker, T. W., Faccenna, C., Humphreys, E. D., Lowry, A. R., and Miller, M. S., 2014, Static and dynamic support of western United States topography: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 402, p. 234-246.
    • Dave, R., and Li, A., 2016, Destruction of the Wyoming craton: Seismic evidence and geodynamic processes: Geology, v. 44, no. 11, p. 883-886.