Teach the Earth > Visualization > Teaching Geoscience with Visualizations > Saturday Afternoon Working Group Meetings

Saturday February 28th Afternoon Working Group Meetings

What visualizations are needed?

Members: Dan Montello, Laura Sanders, Peter Knoop, Debi Kilb, Mickey Gunter, Bob Filson, Laurie Cantwell, Bill Capehart, Mark MacCaffrey, John Geissman

Advanced (Importance of connecting visualizations for different purposes / subjects, Concepts vs. Specific Processes)

Remote sensing

  • Power spectrum and scaling


  • Stereographic projections


  • Ternary diagrams (sandstones, water chemistry)
  • Lithification
  • Walther's law
  • Paleogeography (with time)
  • Transgression / regression
  • Sequence stratigraphy / Milankovitch cycles
  • Turbidite development / Bouma sequences


  • Crystallization of magmas
  • Phase diagrams
  • Formation of magmas
  • Prograde metamorphism - texture
  • Magma differentiation and incompatible elements, fluids
  • Explosive volcanism


  • Deformation mechanisms in structural geology
  • Stress/strain diagrams
  • Mohr circle, failure processes
  • Orientations of planes and lines in space
  • Volume data
  • Fabric development
  • Cross section (slice by slice viewing and creating custom sections)


  • Soil weathering / profile development
  • Difference between structure and landform and bedrock surface
  • Erosion in different settings
  • Retreating glaciers
  • Potentiometric surface
  • Groundwater
  • Discharge and elevation
  • Change in velocity downstream
  • Fluvial processes
  • Groundwater motion
  • Recharge/pumping
  • Tides
  • Isostatic rebound
  • Aquifer storactivity
  • Surface tension phenomena


  • Orientation of fronts, geometry of fronts
  • Climate models - cause / effect of global warming
  • Coriolis effect (toy)
  • Thermohaline circulation
  • Midlatitude cycle (same storm from simple to complex)

Field geology:

  • Mechanics
  • GPS


Box models

  • Reservoirs

Earth Resources

  • Hydrocarbon generation and migration (variety of scales)
  • Hydrothermal Mineral deposits
  • Coal formation


  • Magnetic field generation/destruction
  • Heat flow
  • Gravity / Isostasy
  • Geoid
  • Space physics/magnetosphere
  • Space weather
  • Seismicity and the log scale
  • Convection and conduction
  • Tsunamis
  • Asteroid impact, impact processes

Introductory level

Crystallization of magmas

  • Fractional crystallization
  • Reverse analysis from rock to magma

Old films

  • Britannica
  • What happens to atoms
  • Old animations - convert / update to QuickTime
  • Crystallization of metals
  • Water tank
  • Gravity vs. magnetism
  • Metamorphism

Geologic time

  • Radioactive decay / absolute age determinations

Cognitive levels/experiments
Different versions of a single process to test reliability/viability


  • Magnitude of time / space
  • Convey the importance of time and space
  • Move beyond the material
  • Scaling issues
  • Temporal scale - dynamic representation
  • Duration of process in proportion to time
  • Log scaling

Geologic time given a sequence - sort it out and define a chronology of relative time.

Why is time important in earth processes?

Cognitive research questions.

Members: David Rapp, Barbara Tversky, Steve Reynolds, Janice Gobert, Ramon Lopez, Mark Abolins, Kirsten Butcher

What can we do to identify and revise student misconceptions in geosciences?

Mental models: what is the state of geologists and their students?

How do the knowledge structure in experts and novices differ?

Bridging gap between experts and novices- can you use visualizations to bridge that?

How can we develop alternative representations to test empirically. e.g. Difficulties with interactions of layers and topography.

How students are linking multiple representations?

Need to develop a questionnaire for intro geology students.

Collections on the website.

Learning what students see in visualizations.

Members: Cathy Manduca, David Uttal, Basil Tikoff, Kim Kastens

Technology platforms and interoperability.

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