Comparing Stream Discharge in Two Watersheds in Glacier National Park
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number NSF DUE-0836566. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
- From July photographs showing different amounts of melting snow, frame a hypothesis that higher-elevation areas have a higher areal rate of discharge generation than lower-elevation areas.
- Use a spreadsheet to calculate average July discharge from Grinnell Creek (watershed, 1.1 sq. mi, elevation above 6322 ft) and Swiftcurrent Creek (watershed, 30.9 sq mi., elevation above 4677 ft) and compare the two discharges.
- Expand the spreadsheet to compare the intensive quantity, discharge per unit area, for the two watersheds.
- Decide whether they refuted or affirmed their hypothesis.
- Check in on Swiftcurrent Creek by viewing the USGS real-time discharge data.
In the process the students will:
- Get practice using ratios and rates.
- Be introduced to the concept of extensive vs. extensive quantities.
- Once again convert units (discharge in ft3/sec to ft3/mo).
- Work with basic hydrologic concepts -- watershed, stream discharge, and orographic lifting -- while using data from a real stream-gaging station in a photogenic field area that makes them want to do field work.
Context for Use
Description and Teaching Materials
The module is a PowerPoint presentation with embedded spreadsheets. Click on the link below to download a copy of the module.
PowerPointSSACgnp.GB661.MCR1.2 (PowerPoint 2.5MB May20 13)
Optimal results are achieved with Microsoft Office 2007 or later; the module will function in earlier versions with slight cosmetic compromises. If the embedded spreadsheets are not visible, save the PowerPoint file to disk and open it from there.
The above PowerPoint presentation file is the student version of the module. It includes a template for students to use to complete the spreadsheet(s) and answer the end-of-module questions, and then turn in for grading.
An instructor version is available by request. The instructor version includes the completed spreadsheet. Send your request to Len Vacher (email@example.com) by filling out and submitting the Instructor Module Request Form.
Teaching Notes and Tips
The module is constructed to be a stand-alone resource. It can be used as a homework assignment, lab activity, or as the basis of an interactive classroom activity. It was used as an out-of-class activity in a senior-elective course, Environmental Geology of the National Parks (for geology majors and nonmajors), during development of the module in Spring 2010, and as an out-of-class activity in Computational Geology (a QL course for geology majors) in Fall 2010 and Fall 2011. In both courses, the module was used after the students had worked through several other modules. In general, the students considered this module to be one of the simplest modules in the collection. It has not been implemented yet in the introductory-level Geology of National Parks course.
There is a slide at the end of the presentation that contains end-of-module questions. The end-of-module questions can be used to examine student understanding and learning gains from the module. Pre/post test, pre/post test answer key, and answer key for end-of-module questions are at the end of the instructor version of the module.
References and Resources
US National Park Service (NPS)
Glacier National Park
Western Regional Climate Center
Grinnell Creek Stream Gage: USGS 05013900 Grinnell C at G Glacier nr Many Glacier MT
Swiftcurrent Creek Stream Gage: USGS 05014500 Swiftcurrent Creek at Many Glacier MT