Angle of Repose
This activity was selected for the On the Cutting Edge Reviewed Teaching Collection
This activity has received positive reviews in a peer review process involving five review categories. The five categories included in the process are
- Scientific Accuracy
- Alignment of Learning Goals, Activities, and Assessments
- Pedagogic Effectiveness
- Robustness (usability and dependability of all components)
- Completeness of the ActivitySheet web page
For more information about the peer review process itself, please see http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/review.html.
This page first made public: Mar 28, 2006
In this activity students measure the maximum slope at which grains are stable (angle of repose). They explore how different properties of the sediment influence slope stability and lead to different slope failures (mass movements). The results are then used to examine the nature, frequency, timing, and causes of landsliding events in Seattle.
Students make piles from a variety of sediments and measure (either with a protractor or using basic trigonometry) the angle. They examine sediments with different sizes as well as different angularities. They also add water to the piles to evaluate its impact.
- measure the angle of repose
- determine how grain size, angularity, and water content impact the angle of repose
- relate angle of repose to mass wasting types and causes
- apply knowledge gained during the experiments to patterns of mass wasting in the Seattle area.
Context for Use
This activity can be done in an hour to two hours in an introductory class.
Teaching Notes and Tips
Students need to be warned to take their measurements with care and precision. If they are little off, they could have difficulty answering the questions well. Also, students tend to make small piles which increases error. (This is a terrific place to discuss error and propagation of error).This activity requires some additional materials:
- rounded gravel
- angular gravel
- coarse gravel
- protractors and rulers
- trays to contain the experiments
The gravel can be easily purchased at a pet shop - aquarium gravel works wonderfully. Most hardware or home improvement stores sell sand and gravel as well.
References and Resources
Controlled Vocabulary Terms
Resource Type: Activities:Classroom Activity
Inquiry Level: Guided Inquiry, Step-By-Step Instruction
Special Interest: Local Issue, Quantitative, 2YC:Geo2YC, Geo2YC- OLD DO NOT USE, Hazards
Grade Level: High School (9-12), College Lower (13-14)
Learning Environment: Laboratory
Quantitative Skills: Problem Solving:Equations, Arithmetic/Computation, Graphs, Probability and Statistics:Data Trends, Geometry and Trigonometry
Ready for Use: Ready to Use, Tested
Theme: Teach the Earth:Course Topics:Sedimentary Geology, Environmental Science, Teach the Earth:Teaching Environments:Two-Year Colleges, Teach the Earth:Course Topics:Geomorphology, Teach the Earth:Incorporating Societal Issues:Hazards, Teach the Earth:Teaching Environments:Intro Geoscience
Use: Illustrating concepts and ideas
Data Source: Observational Data
Geologic Setting: Earth Surface
Earth System Topics: Surface Processes:Weathering, Erosion, Mass Wasting
Quantitative Skills Activity Type: Classroom Activity, Lab Activity, Short Activity
Science Background Required: Basic scientific background required, Broadly accessible
Topics: Earth surface:Sedimentary Geology
Solid Earth Processes: Weathering/Erosion