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Increasing Diversity in the Geosciences

Adams, L., Baskerville, K., Lee, D., Spruiell, M., and Wolf, R., 2010, Hispanic Community and Outdoor Recreation, UCLA Anderson School of Management Applied Management Research Program, 22 Mar. 2006. (last accessed 25 Mar. 2011).

Baker, M.A. (2007). Diversity in the Geosciences — We Can Do Better. Geotimes, January 2007.

Davis, J., 2010, The First-Generation Student Experience: Sterling, Virginia, Stylus Publishing, 214 p.

Gonzales, L. (2010). Minority Participation in Undergraduate Programs, American Geological Institute publication, Geoscience Currents, #30.

Gonzales, L. (2010). Underrepresented Minorities in Geoscience Occupations, American Geological Institute (AGI) publication, Geoscience Currents, #35.

Hamilton, B.E., Martin, J.A., and Ventura, S.J., 2010, Births: Preliminary Data for 2009: National Vital Statistics Report, v. 59, no. 3, (last accessed 26 Mar. 2011).

Holmes, M.A., and O'Connell, S., 2005, Where are the Women Geoscience Professors?: NSF-AWG Workshop: are the Women Geoscientists.pdf (last accessed 26 Mar. 2011).

Horn, L., and Nuñez, A.-M., 2000, Mapping the road to college: First generation students' math track, planning Strategies and Context of Support: Washington, D.C., U.S. Department of Education, project Officer Larry Bobbit, National Center for Education Statistics 2000-153, 86 p.

Journal of Geoscience Education Special Issue: Broadening Participation in the Earth Sciences, v 58, n 6. Special Issue Editors - Eric M. Riggs (Purdue University) and Claudia J. Alexander (Jet Propulsion Laboratory)

  • Broadening Participation in the Earth Sciences - Eric M. Riggs (Purdue University) and Claudia J. Alexander (Jet Propulsion Laboratory)
  • Diversity in the Geosciences and Successful Strategies for Increasing Diversity - Jacqueline E. Huntoon (Michigan Technological University) and Melissa J. Lane (National Science Foundation)
  • The Geoscience Pipeline: A Conceptual Framework - Roger Levine (American Institutes for Research), Raquel Gonzalez (University of Maryland - College Park), Susan Cole (American Institutes for Research), Miriam Fuhrman (Rock Solid Testing Services), and Kerstin Carlson Le Floch (American Institutes for Research)
  • Raising Scholastic Achievement in Minority-reached Classes Through Earth Systems Teaching - Nir Orion (Weizmann Institute of Science), Oded Ben-Menacham (Weizmann Institute of Science), and Yaron Shur (Weizmann Institute of Science)
  • Sharing the Land: Attracting Native American Students to the Geosciences - Eric M. Riggs (Purdue University), Eleanora Robbins (San Diego State University), and Rebekka Darner (San Diego State University)
  • An Educational Partnership Program with Minority Serving Institutions: A Framework for Producing Minority Scientists in NOAA-Related Disciplines - Larry Robinson (Florida A&M University), Jacqueline Rousseau (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Delicia Mapp (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Vernon Morris (Howard University), and Meka Laster (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)
  • A Decade of Lessons Learned - Donald K. Walter (South Carolina State University), Shermane A. Austin (Medgar Evers College CUNY), Leon P. Johnson (Medgar Evers College CUNY), Penny A. Morris (University of Houston-Downtown), and Carlos Salgado (Norfolk State University)
  • BEST Practices for Broadening Participation in the Geosciences: Strategies from the UCAR Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science (SOARS) Program - Rajul E. Pandya (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research), Sandra Henderson (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research), Richard A. Anthes (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research), and Roberta M. Johnson (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)
  • Introducing the Geosciences to Alaska Natives via the Rural Alaska Honors Institute (RAHI) - Catherine L. Hanks (University of Alaska Fairbanks), Denise Wartes (University of Alaska Fairbanks), Roger Levine (American Institutes for Research), Raquel Gonzalez (American Institutes for Research), Sarah Fowell (University of Alaska Fairbanks), and Greg Owens (University of Alaska Fairbanks)
  • The Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) in Earth System Science Professional Development Initiative: Enhancing Intellectual Merit and Broader Impact of Diversity through Alignment of Vision, Goals and Objectives, and Measurement - Ashanti J. Pyrtle (University of South Florida) and Vivian A. Williamson-Whitney (Institute for Broadening Participation)
  • Virtual Community Building for Effective Engagement of Students of Color in Earth System Science: Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth Science Case Study - Ashanti J. Pyrtle (University of South Florida), Jozan M. Powell, and Vivian A. Williamson-Whitney (Institute for Broadening Participation)
  • Building a Diverse and Innovative Ocean Workforce through Collaboration and Partnerships that Integrate Research and Education: HBCUs and Marine Laboratories - Matthew R. Gilligan (Savannah State University), Peter G. Verity (Skidaway Institute of Oceanography), Clayton B. Cook (Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution), Susan B. Cook (Consortium for Oceanographic Research and Education), Melissa G. Booth (University of Georgia Marine Institute), and Marc E. Frischer (Skidaway Institute of Oceanography)
  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Jackson State University Program in Fish Stock Assessment - Paulinus Chigbu (University of Maryland Eastern Shore), Ambrose Jearld Jr. (National Marine Fisheries Service), and Michael J. Fogarty (National Marine Fisheries Service)
  • Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences through Providing HBCU Science Majors Training in Natural History Interpretation and Teaching Experiences in Predominantly African-American Communities - Carol J. Pride (Savannah State University) and Margaret M. Olsen (UGA Marine Education Center & Aquarium)
  • Recruiting and Graduating Minority Geoscientists from the University of New Orleans - Laura Serpa (University of Texas at El Paso), Lisa White (San Francisco State University), and Terry L. Pavlis (University of Texas at El Paso)
  • AMulti-Level, Multi-Component Program at San Jose State University to Enhance Diversity in the Geosciences - Richard Sedlock (San Jose State University) and Ellen Metzger, (San Jose State University)
  • Applications of a GIS Program to Tribal Research: its Benefits, Challenges and Extensions to the Community - Sylvio Mannel (Oglala Lakota College), Kim Winkelman (Comanche Nation College), Stacy Phelps (Oglala Lakota College), and Mike Fredenberg (Oglala Lakota College)
  • A Multifaceted Outreach Model for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences in Buffalo, NY - Philip J. Stokes (University of Arizona), Gregory S. Baker (University of Tennessee), Jason P. Briner (SUNY Buffalo), and Dara J. Dorsey (Buffalo State College)
  • Earth Core: Enhancing Delivery of Geoscience Content in a Diverse School System During Times of Changing State Standards - John L. Pecore (Georgia State University), Beth A Christensen (Adelphi University), Heather Mobley (Qualitative Research Consultant), and Nydia R Hanna (Georgia State University)
  • Effectiveness of a Summer Experience for Inspiring Interest in Geoscience Among Hispanic-American High School Students - Kate C. Miller (University of Texas at El Paso), Tina Carrick (University of Texas at El Paso), Carmen Martinez-Sussmann (American Institutes for Research), Roger Levine (American Institutes for Research), Christopher L. Andronicos (Cornell University), and Richard P. Langford (University of Texas at El Paso)

Kelly, E., 2006, Parks, conservation groups aim to attract minorities: USA Today, 19 Mar. 2006: (last accessed 26 Mar. 2011).

Komarraju, M., Musulkin, S., and Bhattacharya, G., 2010, Role of student-faculty interactions in developing college students' academic self-concept, motivation, and achievement: Journal of College Student Development, v. 51, p. 332–343.

NSF (2013). Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering. Arlington, VA. NSF 13-304, February 2013 (last accessed July, 2013)

O'Connell, S. and M.A. Holmes (2011). Obstacles to the recruitment of minorities into the geosciences: A call to action. GSA Today, v 21, n 6, p 52-54.

Prendeville, J., and Elton, D., 2001, Report of the Geosciences Diversity Workshop, Aug. 2000: NSF 01-53: (last accessed 25 Mar. 2011).

Snieder, R., and Spiers, C., 2002, Marketing earth science education: EOS, v. 83, no.12, p. 131–133.

Stokes P., R. Levine, and K.W. Flessa (2014). Why are there so few Hispanic students in geoscience?. GSA Today, v. 24, no. 1, p. 52.

U.S. Census Bureau State and County Quick Facts

Velasco, A.A., and Velasco, E.J., 2010, Striving to diversify the geosciences workforce: EOS, v. 91, no. 33, p. 289–296.

Whitney, D., Behl, R., Ambos, E., Francis, D., Holk, G., Larson, D., Lee, C., Rodrigue, C., and Wechsler, S., 2005, Ethnic differences in geoscience attitudes of college students: EOS, v. 86, no. 30, p. 277–279.

Wilkinson, T., 1999, Attracting minorities to national parks, 1 Feb. 1999: Christian Science Monitor, v. 91, no. 45, p. 3, (last accessed 21 Mar. 2011).

Broadening Access to STEM

Astin, A.W. (1993). What Matters in College?: Four Critical Years Revisited. San Franciso: Jossey- Bass.

Aud, S., Hussar, W., Kena, G., Bianco, K., Frohlich, L., Kemp, J., & Tahan, K. (2011). The Condition of Education 2011. NCES 2011-033. National Center for Education Statistics.

Campbell, P.B., E. Jolly, L. Hoey, L. Perlman (2002). Upping the Numbers: Using Research-Based Decision Making to Increase Diversity in the Quantitative Sciences. Newton, MN: Education Development Center.

Carleton's Interdisciplinary Science and Math Initiative (CISMI) - This site describes the FOCUS and the Carleton Summer Science Fellows programs, which were created to support students under-represented in science and math. Faculty have also incorporated problem solving and group work into courses. The site includes resources for faculty, including Literature resources for broadening access to science and math and examples of courses using group work and problem solving.

Cohen, G. L., & Steele, C. M. (2002). A barrier of mistrust: How negative stereotypes affect cross- race mentoring. Improving academic achievement: Impact of psychological factors on education, 303-327.

College Board (2005) The Impact of Demographic Changes on Higher Education. Summary of Conference Discussions July 27–28, 2005 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Crutcher, R., Obrien, P., Corrigan, R., & Schneider, C. (2007). College learning for the new global century: A report from the national leadership council for liberal education and America's promise. Washington, DC: American Association of State Colleges and Universities.

Engstrom, C. and V. Tinto, Access without support is not opportunity. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 2008. 40(1): 46-50.

Fullilove, Robert E., & Treisman, Philip U. (1990). "Mathematics Achievement Among African American Undergraduates at the University of California, Berkeley: An Evaluation of the Mathematics Workshop Program," Journal of Negro Education 59 (3): 463-478.

Gandara, Patricia, & Maxwell-Jolly, Julie (1999). Priming the Pump: Strategies for Increasing the Achievement of Underrepresented Minority Undergraduates, The College Board: New York.

Gansemer-Topf, A., J. Stern, and M. Benjamin, Examining the experiences of second-year students at a private liberal arts college. In Tobolowsky, J. N., & Cox, B. E. (2007). Shedding light on sophomores: An exploration of the second college year (Monograph No. 47). Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience & Students in Transition. p. 31-48.

Hurtado, S., K. Eagan, and M. Chang, Degrees of Success: Bachelor's Degree Completion Rates among Initial STEM Majors. Higher Education Research Institute, UCLA, URL ResearchBrief OL, 2010.

Hurtado, S., Eagan, M. K., Tran, M. C., Newman, C. B., Chang, M. J., & Velasco, P. (2011). "We do science here": Underrepresented students' interactions with faculty in different college contexts. Journal of Social Issues, 67(3), 553-579.

Institute for Broadening Participation (2014). Designing for Success: Positive factors that support success in STEM pathways and reduce barriers to participation: what does the research say about what enables students to succeed and persist in STEM fields? Damariscotta, ME: Institute for Broadening Participation. 12 p.

Johns, M., T. Schmader, and A. Martens, Knowing Is Half the Battle Teaching Stereotype Threat as a Means of Improving Women's Math Performance. Psychological Science, 2005. 16(3): 175-179.

Johnson, D.R., M. Soldner, J. Brown Leonard, P. Alvarez, K. Kurotsuchi Inkelas, H.T. Rowan-Kenyon, S.D. Longerbeam (2007). Examining Sense of Belonging Among First-Year Undergraduates From Different Racial/Ethnic Groups. Journal of College Student Development. Volume 48, Number 5, September/October 2007 pp. 525-542

Jolly, E.J., P.B. Campbell, L. Perlman (2004). Engagement, Capacity and Continuity: A Trilogy for Student Success. A Report Commissioned by the GE Foundation.

Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Hackett, G. (1994). Toward a unifying social cognitive theory of career and academic interest, choice, and performance. Journal of vocational behavior, 45(1), 79-122.

Li, Xiaojie; C. Dennis Carroll (November 2007). "Characteristics of Minority-Serving Institutions and Minority Undergraduates Enrolled in These Institutions: Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Report". Institute of Education Sciences (US Department of Education).

Matsui, J., Liu, R., & Kane, C. M. (2003). Evaluating a science diversity program at UC Berkeley: more questions than answers. Cell Biology Education, 2(2), 117-121.

McDonough, P. M., Calderone, S. M., & Purdy, W. C. (2007). State Grant Aid and Its Effect on Students' College Choices. WICHE.

National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine (2011). Expanding Underrepresented Minority Participation: America's Science and Technology Talent at the Crossroads. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 269 p.

National Institute for Faculty Equity - Minorities and women, minority women in particular, are underrepresented in academia, even more so in the STEM disciplines: science, technology, engineering and mathematics. This site provides resources for underrepresented faculty on many topics including becoming tenured, making use of mentors, developing a research program, finding funding, and getting published, to name a few.

NSF's Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering provides statistical information about the participation of women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering education and employment.

Olson, S., & Riordan, D. G. (2012). Engage to Excel: Producing One Million Additional College Graduates with Degrees in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Report to the President. Executive Office of the President.

Prescott, B. T., & Bransberger, P. (2012). Knocking at the College Door: Projections of High School Graduates. Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education.

Project Kaleidoscope (2008). Pedagogies of Engagement Initiative. Retrieved on Aug. 9, 2008 at

Project Kaleidoscope (2006). Transforming American's Scientific and Technology Infrastructure. Recommendations for Urgent Action. Washington, D.C.: Project Kaleidoscope.

Rask, K. (2010). Attrition in STEM fields at a liberal arts college: The importance of grades and pre- collegiate preferences [Electronic version] from Cornell University, School of Industrial and Labor Relations site:

Seymour, E. and N.M. Hewitt (1997). Talking about leaving: Why undergraduates leave the sciences. Boulder: Westview Press.

Steele, C. M. (1997). A threat in the air: how stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. American psychologist, 52(6), 613.

Strayhorn, T.L. (2012). College Students' Sense of Belonging: A Key to Educational Success for All Students. New York, NY: Routledge. 160 p.

Summers, Michael F. & Hrabowski, Freeman A. III (2006). "Preparing Minority Scientists and Engineers," Science 311: 1870-1871.

Tinto, V. (1993). Leaving College: Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition (2nd ed.), Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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