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References and Resources for Just-in-Time Teaching

Web-Based Resources

General Information on Just-in-Time Teaching

  • Video-based Case Stories - A series of videos from the ELIXR project on how to effectively implement Just-in-Time Teaching in your courses.
  • Just-in-Time Teaching Web Site - This web site, created by the original JiTT developers, provides extensive background information on the development of JiTT, JiTT goals, resources, adopters, and impact.
  • JiTT Digital Library - This National Science Foundation-supported digital library for Just-in-Time Teaching pedagogical resources includes a collection of JiTT questions from a variety of disciplines, a wiki, a listing of people who use JiTT in their teaching, and access to a hosting service for first-time users of the JiTT pedagogy. On the JiTTDL hosting server you can post JiTT assignments for your course and retrieve student responses.

Using JiTT in Different Disciplines

Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Mathematics

  • The WebScience Project at IUPUI includes examples of JiTT exercises (Warm-Ups), Puzzles, and "Good Fors" in biology, physics, chemistry, and mathematics.


  • Using JiTT in Economics Web site - Provides information on how to get started with JiTT, including a step-by-step example.
  • Video on using JiTT in Economics (Quicktime Video 6.5MB Sep16 10) - Watch Dr. Mark Maier, Glendale Community College, explain how he uses Just-in-Time Teaching in his Principles of Economics courses.

History of Photography

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JiTT References - General (In Reverse Chronological Order)

Simkins, Scott and Maier, Mark (Eds.) (2010) Just in Time Teaching: Across the Disciplines, Across the Academy, Stylus Publishing.

Patterson, E.T. (2005) Just-in-Time Teaching: Technology Transforming Learning – A Status Report, Invention and Impact: Building Excellence in Undergraduate STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) Education, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Rhem, James. (2005). Just-in-Time Teaching ( This site may be offline. ) Tomorrow's Professor listserv posting, originally published in the National Teaching and Learning Forum Newsletter, Volume 14, Number 1.

Novak, G. & Middendorf, J. (2004) Just-in-Time Teaching. In: Volume IV - What Works, What Matters, What Lasts. Project Kaleidoscope.

Novak, G.M & Patterson, E.T. (2000) The Best of Both Worlds: WWW Enhanced In-Class Instruction . Paper presented at IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education, May 24-27, 2000 Cancun, Mexico

Novak, Gregor M., Patterson, E. T., Gavrin, A. D., and Christian, W. (1999) Just-In-Time-Teaching: Blending Active Learning with Web Technology , Prentice Hall.

Novak, G.M & Patterson, E.T. (1998) Just-in-Time Teaching: Active Learner Pedagogy with WWW . Paper presented at IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education, May 27 -30, 1998 Cancun, Mexico

Creed, Tom. (1997) Extending the Classroom Walls Electronically. In: New Paradigms for College Teaching, eds. William E. Campbell and Karl A. Smith, 149-184. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Co.

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Research on JiTT in the Disciplines


Multiple Disciplines (Biology, Chemistry, Physics)

Marrs, Kathleen A., Blake, R. E. and Gavrin, A. D. (2003) Web-Based Warm Up Exercises in Just-In-Time Teaching: Determining Students' Prior Knowledge and Misconceptions in Biology, Chemistry and Physics , Journal of College Science Teaching, 33 (1).


Christensen, T. (2005). Changing the Learning Environment in Large General Education Astronomy Classes - The Gradual, Ongoing Transformation . Journal of College Science Teaching, 35, 3, 34.


Klionsky, D. J. (2002). Constructing Knowledge in the Lecture Hall - A Quiz-Based, Group-Learning Approach to Introductory Biology . Journal of College Science Teaching,31, 4, 246.

Marrs, 2005, Assessment of JiTT on Student Learning - Powerpoint Presentation

Marrs, K. A., & Chism, G. W. (April 2005). Just-in-Time Teaching for Food Science: Creating an Active Learner Classroom . Journal of Food Science Education,4,2, 27-34.

Marrs, Kathleen A., and Novak, Gregor M. (2004) Just-in-Time Teaching in Biology: Creating an Active Learner Classroom Using the Internet , Cell Biology Education, 3 (1), 49-61.


Slunt, K. M., & Giancarlo, L. C. (2004). In the Classroom - Student-Centered Learning: A Comparison of Two Different Methods of Instruction . Journal of Chemical Education,81,7, 985.


Simkins, Scott and Maier, Mark. (2004) Using Just-in-Time Teaching Techniques in the Principles of Economics Course , Social Science Computer Review, 22 (4), pp. 444-456.

Engineering/Environmental Science

Gavrin, A., Cashman, Eileen M., Eschenbach, Elizabeth A. (2005) Special Session - Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT): Using Online Exercises to Enhance Classroom Learning, 35th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference.


Baer, E.M., Baer, E. H., Burn, H., Gilbert, L.A., Whittington, C. (2002) Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America Cordilleran Section, 98th Annual Meeting, May 13-15, 2002, Mathpatch - a Just in Time approach to teaching quantitative skills in introductory Courses .

de Caprariis, Pascal, Barman, Charles & Magee, Paula (2001) Monitoring the Benefits of Active Learning Exercises in Introductory Survey Courses: An Attempt to Improve the Education of Prospective Public School Teachers , The Journal of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning v. 1, n. 2, p. 13-23.

Grove, Karen. (2002) Using online homework assignments to implement the learning cycle in large courses for general education , Journal of Geoscience Education v50 n5 566-574.

Guertin, L., Zappe, S., & Kim, H. (2007). Just-in-Time Teaching Exercises to Engage Students in an Introductory-Level Dinosaur Course . Journal of Science Education and Technology,16,6, 507-514

Linneman, S., & Plake, T. (2006). Searching for the Difference: A Controlled Test of Just-in-Time Teaching for Large-Enrollment Introductory Geology Courses. Journal of Geoscience Education,54,1, 18.


Gavrin, A.D. & Novak, G. (1999) What is Physics Good For? Motivating Students With Online Materials . Paper presented at IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education, May 6-8, 1999 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania


Benedict, J. O., and Anderton, J. B. (2004) Applying the Just-in-Time Teaching Approach to Teaching Statistics , Teaching of Psychology, 31, 197-199.



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Complementary Pedagogies

Additional information about how to combine JiTT with other pedagogies.

Reading Questions

Henderson, C. & Rosenthal, A. (2006) [link 'Reading Questions: Encouraging Students to Read the Text Before Coming to Class'], Journal of College Science Teaching, 35 (7), 46-50.

Peer Instruction (PI)

Crouch, Catherine H. and Mazur, Eric (2001) Peer Instruction: Ten Years of Experience and Results. American Journal of Physics, 69, 970-977.

Fagen, Adam P., Crouch, Catherine H., and Mazur, Eric (2002) Peer Instruction: Results from a Range of Classrooms, Physics Teacher, 40, 206-209.

Mazur, Eric., Peer Instruction: A User Manual. Prentice-Hall, 1996.

Redish, Edward F. Chapter 7: Lecture-Based Methods. Teaching Physics with the Physics Suite. John Wiley and Sons.

University of Maryland Physics Education Research Group, The Physics Suite. Peer Instruction Problems.

Watkins, Jessica and Mazur, Eric. Just-in-Time Teaching and Peer Instruction. In Simkins, Scott and Maier, Mark (Eds.) (2010) Just in Time Teaching: Across the Disciplines, and Across the Academy, Stylus Publishing.



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JiTT History and Development

Project Kaleidoscope Just-in-Time Teaching: Interview with a Pioneer (more info)

Rozycki, William (1999) Just-in-Time Teaching and its Development , Research and Creative Activity v 22, n1

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A Teaching and Learning Sampler

Angelo and Cross (1993) Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers (Second Edition) Jossey-Bass Publishers: San Francisco

Bransford, John; Brown, Ann L. and Cocking, Rodney R. (Editors). (2000) How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition , National Research Council (U. S.) Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice, National Academies Press.

Chickering, Arthur W. and Zelda F. Gamson. (1987). Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. AAHE Bulletin March.

Mazur, E., Fagen, A., Crouch, C., & Callan, J. (2004). Classroom demonstrations: Learning tools or entertainment?. Am. J. Phys., 72(6), 835-838.

Misconceptions as Barriers to Understanding Science (1997). In Science Teaching Reconsidered: A Handbook. National Academies Press, Washington, DC.

Redish, Edward F. (2003) Teaching Physics with the Physics Suite. Wiley.



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