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Phases of the Moon

Rebecca Teed, Wright State University

This resource received an Accept or Accept with minor revisions rating from a Panel Peer Review process

These materials were reviewed using face-to-face NSF-style review panel of geoscience and geoscience education experts to review groups of resources addressing a single theme. Panelists wrote reviews that addressed the criteria:

  1. scientific accuracy and currency
  2. usability and
  3. pedagogical effectiveness
Reviewers rated the resources:
  1. Accept
  2. Accept with minor revisions
  3. Accept with major revisions, or
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They also singled out those resources they considered particularly exemplary, which are given a gold star rating.

Following the panel meetings, the conveners wrote summaries of the panel discussion for each resource; these were transmitted to the creator, along with anonymous versions of the reviews. Relatively few resources were accepted as is. In most cases, the majority of the resources were either designated as 1) Reject or 2) Accept with major revisions. Resources were most often rejected for their lack of completeness to be used in a classroom or they contained scientific inaccuracies.

This page first made public: Jan 17, 2006

This material is replicated on a number of sites as part of the SERC Pedagogic Service Project


This exercise has students use a simple physical model of the Earth, sun, and moon to understand why the moon changes phases from the perspective of Earthly observers. Students hold up balls representing the moon in a room with a single light source (representing the sun). As they turn relative to the sun, holding the "moon" out in front of them, they will see changes in how much of the side that they can see is lit, but they can also check and see that overall, half of the "moon" is lit (the side facing the sun), no matter what position it is in relative to them. It's all a matter of perspective.

Learning Goals

This experience is intended to enable students to

Context for Use

This exercise will take about half an hour, depending on how long the students have to work out their initial and final explanations of why the moon changes phases.

Teaching Materials

Each student or group of student gets a sphere, tennis-ball size or larger, to represent the moon.

A grapefruit illuminated by a lightbulb shows phases too

Ask the students, in groups of four, to work out an explanation of the phases of the moon that they can write down (legibly) on an index card that they then hand in (for a participation grade, the information is not expected to be correct). Students then pick up the spheres, and the instructor turns out all of the overhead lights (make sure windows are covered by curtains or blinds) and turns on one light source, taking the role of the Sun (a powerful one if teaching in a lecture hall).

Have each student with a "moon" hold it up in front of them as they face the instructor. Ask them what phase the moon is in, assuming that they are the Earth ("new moon"; make sure they agree on this). Then ask them (or students without "moons", if there are any) "How much of the moon is lit?" (one-half, make sure everyone can see this, if need be by looking over their shoulders at the "moons" behind them).

Next, have the students with "moons" turn 90 degrees to their right. "What phase is the moon in now?" (one-quarter, crescent). "How much of the moon is lit?" (one-half). Then have the students turn until their back is to the "sun" and hold the moon up high so that no shadow falls on it. "What phase is it in now?" (full). "How much of the moon is lit?" (still one-half).

Turn the lights on and have the student groups once again work out an explanation of the phases of the moon that they can write down (legibly) on an index card that they then hand in.

Teaching Notes and Tips

Items for further discussion include: lunar eclipses, the "dark" side of the moon, whether it's possible to see a crescent moon directly overhead at midnight.


The index cards allow the instructor to take roll (and assign participation grades) and to see how well students understood the lesson and how much it changed their previous ideas.

References and Resources

Related Web Sites:


Geoscience:Lunar and Planetary Science

Resource Type

Activities:Lab Activity, Classroom Activity:Short Activity:Demonstration

Grade Level

College Lower (13-14):Introductory Level

Ready for Use

Ready to Use:Meets Peer Review Standard:Anonymous Peer Review, Ready to Use

Earth System Topics

Solar System and Astronomy


Solar system


Teach the Earth:Teaching Environments:Intro Geoscience, Teach the Earth:Course Topics:Planetary Science

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