Build a Better Wall
How can we design buildings to withstand an earthquake? This activity uses simple materials and gives learners a chance to experiment with structures that can withstand an earthquake. Two optional activities explore building damage by subjecting models to ground vibration on a small shake table.
Skills and concepts that students must have mastered
Learners should know what earthquakes are.
How the activity is situated in the course
This activity can largely stand alone once learners know what earthquakes are. However in a larger unit on earthquakes it should probably come later when the topic moves from understanding what earthquakes are to how they affect our society and address steps we can take to mitigate earthquake risk. It works well immediately after Earthquake Hazard Maps & Liquefaction. Also works well in conjunction with BOSS Model: Building Oscillation Seismic Simulation and Base Isolation for Earthquake Resistance.
Content/concepts goals for this activity
Learners will be able to:
- Recognize some of the structural elements of a building.
- Describe how the horizontal and vertical structural elements carry the horizontal and vertical loads of a building.
- Describe how diagonal braces, shear walls, and rigid connections provide paths for the horizontal load resulting from an earthquake.
Higher order thinking skills goals for this activity
Design shear bracing for a wall to help it withstand earthquake-like shaking.
Other skills goals for this activity
- Working in groups
- Using physical models
Description and Teaching Materials
See attached file for educator notes, NGSS alignment, links to supporting resources, and student exercise.
Build a Better Wall Activity (Acrobat (PDF) 1.5MB Apr2 19)
- Presentation: Earthquake Basics - designing buildings for seismic safety is included in this presentation
- Animation: Building Resonance: Structural stability during earthquakes
- Animation: [link Buildings in Earthquakes: Construction affects the intensity 'Buildings In Earthquakes—Construction affects the intensity']
- Demo video: Build A Better Wall activity
- Video: Build A Better Wall: Parts & Construction
Teaching Notes and Tips
- It does take a bit of time to assemble the materials; however once it is done, the models can last for many years.
- For classrooms, models with two craft sticks on a side work fine. For informal education settings (ex. ranger talks) or as a teacher demonstration it can be helpful to have larger models with three sticks to a side.
- Works well with learner groups of 4-5.
- A great entry into the activity is simply to present the model (wobbly and near collapse) to your learners, give them the small packet of possible "engineering" materials, and say "you have five minutes to make this house safer for your family to live it -- go!". This gets the learners highly invested in the activity and more interested in any load path discussion that may come later.
- These paired USGS videos on earthquake-vulnerable building and possible retrofit steps can work well in the exercise wrap-up. These particular videos were made in response to the 1999 Turkey earthquake that killed over 16,000 people. However the exact type of architecture depicted in the videos is common throughout Asia and some other parts of the world.
- Weak building vulnerable to earthquake collapse (USGS) ( 5.3MB May20 18)
- Retrofitted building resilient to earthquake (USGS) ( 4.7MB May20 18)
The student worksheet, if used, serves as the summative assessment for the activity. However, some instructors may choose to just use this activity as a less formal activity. If that is the case or if one is working with an informal audience, learner understanding can be gathered from questions to and discussions with small groups or the whole group.
References and Resources
- The activity was presented as part of the EarthScope ANGLE Educator Workshops.
- This activity is part of ANGLE Curricular Pathway 4: Community Resilience.
- This version of the activity was improved by ShakeAlert and further changes in the future are possible.
- Original FEMA webpage for this activity: https://www.fema.gov/media-library/assets/documents/15229?id=3558
- Earlier CEETEP webpage for this activity
- Contact ANGLE with questions or comments.