All Things Cretaceous:
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Integrating Research and Education > Cretaceous > Key Topics > Paleontology
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Cretaceous Paleontology

This page was written by Jen Aschoff as part of the DLESE Community Services Project: Integrating Research in Education.

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MSU student Vanessa Shaw with two T-rex teeth found in the B-rex quarry.
MSU student Vanessa Shaw with two T-rex teeth found in the B-rex quarry. Details

Flora

Resources containing information about Cretaceous plants.

  • Cretaceous Fossils: Plants Quick Identification Gallery. This site forms a component of the CretaceousFossils.com page providing detailed information and high resolution photos of Cretaceous plants. The site supplies a practical, visual resource designed to facilitate identification of plant fossils from the Cretaceous Period. Educators and students alike may find this site and its links useful for viewing, identifying and downloading photos of exceptionally preserved fossil plant specimens. (more info)
  • Cretaceous periods: Evolution of Plant and Animal Life. This page is an interactive encyclopedia entry that summarizes plant and animal life of the Cretaceous Period. It provides a comprehensive overview of life and earth systems of the Cretaceous supported by numerous links to primary literature sources and sites with more detailed information. Topics include: Cretaceous angiosperms, insects, dinosaurs, reptiles, climate, and the end of Cretaceous extinction. Educators may find this site useful for review purposes and quick access to the most current research on Cretaceous life. ( This site is likely no longer available. )
  • Cretaceous:Tectonics and Paleoclimate. As part of the Berkeley Museum of Paleontology site, this page provides general information about earth systems of the Cretaceous Period. The site contains text, supporting diagrams and links to more detailed resources concerned with plate tectonics and past climates. Specific topics covered in this site include the rifting of Pangea, global climate, appearance and diversification of angiosperms, end of Cretaceous extinction and Chicxulub impact. (more info)
  • Paleobotany and Palynology Image Gallery. This site features a limited image gallery of Tertiary and Cretaceous plant specimens held by the Florida Museum of Natural History. High resolution photos and photomicrographs of rare plant specimens, with related references to the primary literature, are easily viewed and downloaded. Educators and research scientists will find this site useful for identifying unknown specimens and for constructing advanced paleobotany and palynology lectures. (more info)
  • Plantae: Fossil Record and First Appearances. This University of California Berkeley Museum of Paleontology site provides an interactive geologic timescale that illustrates the temporal distribution of several important plant groups. First appearances of major plant groups are plotted on a colorful timescale and each group is linked to references, text, images, and further information. Key Cretaceous plant groups featured include Anthocerotophyta, Anthophyta and Gnetales. The site might be a useful resource for constructing introductory level lectures concerned with paleobotany and paleoecology of the Cretaceous Period. (more info)
  • The Cretaceous Period: New Dinosaurs and Flowering Plants. This site forms a component of the Palaeos page, and provides information about several facets of the Cretaceous Period. The site supplies information about the paleogeography, paleobiology, plate tectonic framework and major seaways characterizing the Cretaceous with few supporting illustrations. Short descriptions and links to resources with more detailed information are supplied. Educators may find this site useful for creating lectures and compiling a reference list. (more info)
  • Upper Cretaceous Plants from the Badlands of Southern Alberta, Canada. This site features photographs and photomicrographs of upper Cretaceous conifer, angiosperm, fern and seed specimens. Brief figure captions and a bibliography are also included. This site is a valuable resource for educators creating advanced lectures concerned with paleobotany and plants of the Cretaceous Period. (more info)
  • Why do Paleobotanists Believe in a Cretaceous Origin of Angiosperms?. This technical article questions the interpretation that Angiosperms first appeared in the Cretaceous Period. Although this article was written for botany and paleobotany specialists, its diagrams, links to supporting materials, and glossary are comprehensible to non-specialists as well. Educators and research scientists alike may find this site useful for finding background information concerning the evolution of Angiosperms. This article has not been peer-reviewed. (more info)

Palynology

Resources containing information about the utility of palynology and Cretaceous pollen.

  • American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists. As a portal to an array of palynology resources, this site provides numerous links to background information, palynology laboratories and professionals using palynology as a geologic tool. The site also features an extensive list of related journals, research granting institutions and links to affiliated organizations in paleontology and geology. (more info)
  • Cretaceous:Tectonics and Paleoclimate. As part of the Berkeley Museum of Paleontology site, this page provides general information about earth systems of the Cretaceous Period. The site contains text, supporting diagrams and links to more detailed resources concerned with plate tectonics and past climates. Specific topics covered in this site include the rifting of Pangea, global climate, appearance and diversification of angiosperms, end of Cretaceous extinction and Chicxulub impact. (more info)
  • Directory of Palynologists. This Canadian Association of Palynologists site provides a comprehensive list of professional palynologists from around the world with their contact information. (more info)
  • Palynology References. As a part of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) website, this page provides a list of palynological references related to the Cretaceous Period. These references cover an array of topics including Early Cretaceous gymnosperm pollen, implications of palynofacies on petroleum potential, lignite microfossils, Cretaceous megaspore pollen, microspore pollen and depositional environments. (more info)

Fauna

Resources containing information about Cretaceous animals.

  • A Giant Ginsu Shark from the Late Cretaceous Chalk of Kansas. This site features a report on the historic 1891 discovery of a giant Cretaceous fossil shark (Cretoxyrhina) and the recent excavation of a similar specimen from the chalk deposits of Gove County, Kansas. Several photos, illustrations, references and relevant links accompany this thorough account of the shark's discovery and excavation. (more info)
  • A Palaeontological Database of Rudist Bivalves. Rudist bivalves are a morphologically unique group of marine clams that lived from the Jurassic through the Cretaceous Period. This site supplies a brief introduction to the evolution, morphology and palaeoecology of rudist bivalves, including photos and illustrations of characteristic fossils. Outcrop photographs of selected rudist localities are provided with detailed location information and relevant references for each locale. Additionally, a list of references and a link to a taxonomic database are provided to aid specimen identification. (more info)
  • Albian fossils of the Anglo-Parisien basin. This illustrated guide to Albian (Cretaceous) fossils provides an extensive photo collection of fossils from the Anglo-Parisian basin. Additional information, high resolution photos and illustrations can be accessed by clicking the fossil icons located on the globe, the time scale or along the top of the page. Although the site is written in French, a non-French-speaking visitor will find this page easy to navigate and the photos well worth the visit. Fauna featured on this site include ammonites, nautiloids, belemnites, gastropods, crusteceans, echinoderms, marine vertebrates and corals. (more info)
  • Are Birds Really Dinosaurs?. Evidence presented on this site is overwhelmingly in favor of birds being the descendants of a maniraptoran dinosaur, probably something similar (but not identical) to a small dromaeosaur. Dr. Jacques Gauthier created the first well-accepted, detailed phylogeny of the diapsids. His work provided strong, compelling support for the theory that birds are theropod dinosaurs. The development of the theory is traced and a list of twenty major skeletal characteristics the first birds shared with many coelurosaurian dinosaurs is included. The site contains many active links for further study. (more info)
  • Bacteria: Fossil Record. This description of the fossil record of bacteria focuses on one particular group of bacteria, the cyanobacteria or blue-green algae, which have left a fossil record that extends far back into the Precambrian. The oldest cyanobacteria-like fossils known are nearly 3.5 billion years old and are among the oldest fossils currently known. Cyanobacteria are larger than most bacteria and may secrete a thick cell wall. More importantly, cyanobacteria may form large layered structures, called stromatolites (if more or less dome-shaped) or oncolites (if round). The site also refers to pseudomorphs of pyrite and siderite, and a group of bacteria known as endolithic. Two links are available for more information. One provides information on the discovery of possible remains of bacteria-like organisms on a meteorite from Mars and the other has a research report on fossilized filamentous bacteria and other microbes, found in Cretaceous amber. (more info)
  • Cretaceous Marine Reptiles References List. This comprehensive reference list highlights numerous articles related to Cretaceous marine reptiles and provides links to other relevant, classic paleontology references. Several of these references date back to the 1800's and some articles are hyperlinked to pdf files that can be easily downloaded and printed. Examples of topics covered by these references include the Cretaceous period, paleontology, evolution, marine reptiles, Cretaceous fossils and sedimentary rocks. (more info)
  • Extinction. This site discusses and defines a number of extinction concepts and provides a survey of some important extinction and extinction-like events, primarily from the Phanerozoic. There is information about species transitions, abrupt and mass extinctions, patterns and causal mechanisms of extinction, and isotope studies. Events that occurred during the Proterozoic, Vendian-Cambrian, Upper Cambrian (Dolgellian, Marjuman-Steptoean), Permian-Triassic, Triassic-Jurassic, and Cretaceous-Tertiary are discussed as well as extinction events of the modern era. (more info)
  • Fossils of the Gault Clay and Folkestone Beds of Kent, UK. A diverse collection of lower Cretaceous (Albian) fossils is featured on this site. Fossil photos, illustrations and information about each suborder are provided for an array of fossil groups. Specific fossil groups include Ammonoidea, Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, Cnidaria (Corals), Echinodermata, Fish, Foraminifera, Gastropoda, Ostracoda, and Scaphopoda. Short discussions of United Kingdom geology, Albian stratigraphy, geologic time and fossil imaging techniques are also included. (more info)
  • Humboldt State University Museum of Natural History: Cretaceous. From the first flowering plants to marine reptiles, this site provides an overview of life in the Cretaceous. Information about flora and fauna are divided into several key fossil groups. Examples of key specimens from each of these groups are viewed by clicking on the species name. Links to other relevant sites and additional information are supplied at the bottom of the top page. (more info)
  • Introduction to Pterasauria: The Flying Reptiles. This site is a general introduction to pterosaurs. Ranging from the size of a sparrow to the size of an airplane, the pterosaurs (Greek for "wing lizards") ruled the skies in the Jurassic and Cretaceous, and included the largest vertebrate ever known to fly: the late Cretaceous Quetzalcoatlus. The site has photographs, illustrations, and numerous active links that lead to detailed information on the subject. (more info)
  • Introduction to Thyreophora: The Armored Dinosaurs. The Thyreophora are a group of small to quite large armored plant-eating dinosaurs. The most familiar are Stegosaurus and Ankylosaurus, though there were many others. The two earliest known, Scutellosaurus and Scelidosaurus along with the remaining two major groups Stegosauria and Ankylosauria are described on this site. (more info)
  • Introduction to the Ceratopsians. Ceratopsians were ornithischians, or "bird-hipped" dinosaurs, such as the well known Triceratops. Forms without the enormous horns and frills of Triceratops, in the family Protoceratopsidae, include the Mongolian genus Protoceratops and the unusual bipedal, frill-less dinosaur Psittacosaurus ("parrot-lizard"). This description of their classification, morphology, locomotion, and eating habits also includes active links for further study. (more info)
  • Introduction to the Hadrosaurs: "Duck-billed" Dinosaurs. Hadrosaurs, the "duckbilled dinosaurs", were common in the Upper Cretaceous of Europe, Asia, and North America. They were members of the Ornithopoda, and close relatives and possibly descendants of the earlier iguanodontid dinosaurs. The morphology of the two subfamilies, Lambeosaurinae and Hadrosaurinae, is discussed, including the purpose of the crest on the head of the former. Two other fossils are also described, Edmontosaurus and a baby Maiasaura. (more info)
  • Ornithomimidae (Bird Mimics): The Ostrich-Like Dinosaurs. This site describes the Ornithomimids, a distinctive group of theropod dinosaurs who show a good example of convergent evolution with the ratite birds, such as ostriches. They were not as closely related to birds as the Dromaeosauridae were, but were still members of the well supported group Coelurosauria, which includes birds. The site describes their classification, morphology, locomotion, and eating habits. This site also includes active links for further study. (more info)
  • Some Representative Invertebrates from the Cretaceous Period. This site provides large, high resolution photos and information about a variety of Cretaceous invertebrate fossil specimens. Fossils are arranged taxonomically and can be viewed by clicking on the appropriate fossil group. Types of organisms covered on the site include Annelids, Jellyfish, Corals, Brachiopods, Echinoids, Gastropods, Crustaceans, Belemnites, Ammonites, and Nautiloids. (more info)
  • Some Representative Vertebrates from the Cretaceous Period. A collection of photos, illustrations, artistic renditions and additional information for a variety of Cretaceous vertebrate fossils is featured in this site. Specimens are arranged taxonomically and can be accessed by clicking on the appropriate vertebrate group. Featured fossils include bony fish, dinosaurs, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, crocodiles, alligators, turtles and sharks. (more info)
  • Something about Plesiosaurs. This site provides a complete, illustrated guide to plesiosaurs accompanied by numerous links to detailed information about the specific specimens and concepts discussed. An array of photographs, illustrations and artistic renditions are easily enlarged, viewed and downloaded. The site covers a range of topics including marine reptiles, plesiosaurs, elasmosaur, paleontology, the Cretaceous Period, Cretaceous fossils, and the Western Interior Seaway. Many relevant references are also included in the narratives that describe each image as well as in a separate bibliography. (more info)
  • Sternberg Museum of Natural History: The Unofficial Virtual Tour. This virtual tour of the Sternberg Museum of Natural History covers a broad range of Cretaceous fauna with emphasis on marine life of the Western Interior Seaway. Topics include large marine fish (Xiphactinus), Inoceramid clams, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, ichthyosaurs, large turtles (Protostega), flightless toothed birds, dinosaurs (including Tyrannosaurus rex), flying reptiles (Pteranodons) and the Western Interior Seaway. (more info)
  • The Dinosauria: Truth is Stranger than Fiction. This historical background information discusses the myths associated with dinosaurs. The site contains links to sections entitled the Fossil Record, Life History and Ecology, Systematics, and More on Morphology. Additional links lead to special exhibits and detailed information about dinosaurs as well as sources for further reading. (more info)
  • The Oviraptoridae ("Egg Snatchers"). This site describes some of the strangest-looking theropods, known as the oviraptors, a very rare group of maniraptorans represented by excellent fossil finds from the Cretaceous period of Mongolia and North America. Some of the most well-preserved specimens of dinosaurs ever found are oviraptors and fossil evidence is described that indicates bird-like behavior. The site describes their classification, morphology, locomotion, and eating habits and also includes active links for further study. (more info)
  • The Troodontidae: Smartest of the Non-Avian Dinosaurs?. This site describes the Troodontidae, a small group (maybe five different species) of very rare and hence poorly known maniraptorans. They are only known from a few incomplete specimens from the Cretaceous period of North America and Mongolia, so their exact affinities to other maniraptorans are uncertain. Their morphology is described in terms of locomotion and other activities and the size of their brain case. Active links are provided for further studies. (more info)
  • The Tyrant Lizards: The Tyrannosauridae. This site describes a group of huge carnivores that must have tyrannically ruled the land during the Cretaceous period. They are known as Tyrannosauridae. Members of this group are listed, including the well-known Tyrannosaurus rex. Their classification is described and links are provided for further study. In addition, information is provided on their movement and eating habits. (more info)
  • Theropod Dinosaurs:The "Beast-Footed" Carnivorous Dinosaurs. The Theropod (meaning "beast-footed") dinosaurs are a diverse group of bipedal saurischians. They include the largest terrestrial carnivores ever to have made the earth tremble. This page provides an explanation of the general characteristics that place dinosaurs in this group, followed by detailed information on the three major groups: Herrerasauridae, Ceratosauria, and Tetanurae. Active links within the site allow for further study. (more info)
  • UCMP'S Tyrannosaurus Rex Exposition. This site describes the skeleton of Tyrannosaurus rex at the University of California Museum of Paleontology and includes active links for more information. The first, Meet T. rex gives general information about the animal. The second link, Building T. rex, includes pictures of the actual construction of the skeleton. The third link contains children's art depicting various dinosaurs. The final link includes information on Tarbosaurus bataar, a close relative of T. rex. (more info)
  • University of California Museum of Paleontology: Vertebrate Collection. The University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) Vertebrate Collection contains thousands of specimens of vertebrate fossils from the Devonian to the Recent and from localities around the globe. Particularly unique holdings of the museum include collections of Triassic vertebrates from western North America, Cretaceous dinosaurs and mammals from Montana and Wyoming, Paleocene through Pleistocene mammals from the western United States, the original material from the Rancho La Brea tar pits, Tertiary Australian marsupials, Miocene faunas of Colombia, and Pleistocene cave faunas of South Africa. The collection is searchable by specimen number, family, genus, and species, or by location and/or geologic age. It is also browseable by class. Photos are available online for some specimens. (more info)
  • Virtual Journey into the Cretaceous Seas of South Dakota. This site offers a virtual tour of the South Dakota Museum of Geology emphasizing the Cretaceous marine reptile collection. Numerous, high resolution photographs of mosasaurs, elasmosasaurs (plesiosaurs) and other marine fauna are presented with information and references relevant to each specimen. The tour features a 29 foot long mosasaur skeleton, a 4 foot long mosasaur skull, 10 cm long teeth, fossil mosasaur stomach contents as well as other marine fauna recovered from South Dakota. The fauna presented in this collection are good examples of the marine life that flourished in Cretaceous oceans. (more info)
  • Walking With Dinosaurs. Part of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) learning series, this website contains dinosaur information, games, interviews with scientists, and virtual tours. The Chronology section discusses dinosaurs that lived from 225 million to 65 million years ago (Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous). Specific dinosaur information includes meaning of its name, diet, size, weight, geographic distribution, and a brief description. Fact Files provides a search tool to find dinosaurs by time period, type, diet, and habitat. Live From Dinosaur Island hosts a virtual dig to find fossils, demonstrates what its like to dig for fossils, offers a virtual tour of dig headquarters, where recovered bones are taken to be cleaned, prepared, and analyzed, and contains descriptions of pictured fossils. There are a number of dinosaur games that portray survival, habits, and features of different dinosaurs. Other sections describe how scientists determine aspects of dinosaur life by looking at their fossils. (more info)

K/T Extinction

Resources containing information about Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction.

  • A Palaeontological Database of Rudist Bivalves. Rudist bivalves are a morphologically unique group of marine clams that lived from the Jurassic through the Cretaceous Period. This site supplies a brief introduction to the evolution, morphology and palaeoecology of rudist bivalves, including photos and illustrations of characteristic fossils. Outcrop photographs of selected rudist localities are provided with detailed location information and relevant references for each locale. Additionally, a list of references and a link to a taxonomic database are provided to aid specimen identification. (more info)
  • A Tale of Two Rocks. This Smithsonian Magazine site provides an introductory level summary of the discovery of the Chicxulub impact site. The article describes geologic evidence used to interpret the impact structure and the implications these have for the Cretaceous/Tertiary mass extinction. Other topics include the extinction of dinosaurs, tsunami waves, wildfires, shocked quartz, impact melt rocks, impact breccias, and the use of subsurface geophysical and drill core data. (more info)
  • The Dinosaur Heresies: New Theories Unlocking the Mystery of the Dinosaurs and Their Extinction. Bakker, 2001 This book summarizes several different lines of evidence that indicate that dinosaurs were warm-blooded and not at all lizard-like. (citation and description)
  • Changing Paleoclimates and Mass Extinctions. This article provides a model for climatic change and relates climatic cycles with major extinction events in the history of the Earth. It discusses the mechanisms behind modern climate zones (circulation, storm systems, seasons), astronomical models, climatic models (obliquity conditions, rising sea levels, current conditions), and mass extinctions and model timing (causes of extinction events, predicted vs. documented extinctions, and extinction-driven evolution). A geologic time scale provides a reference for climatic conditions at different periods in Earth history. References are provided for additional information. (more info)
  • Evolutionary Catastrophes: The Science of Mass Extinction. Courtillot, 1999 This book uses the catastrophic-volcanism hypothesis to explain the K/T mass extinction, as opposed to the impact hypothesis. (citation and description)
  • Cretaceous periods: Evolution of Plant and Animal Life. This page is an interactive encyclopedia entry that summarizes plant and animal life of the Cretaceous Period. It provides a comprehensive overview of life and earth systems of the Cretaceous supported by numerous links to primary literature sources and sites with more detailed information. Topics include: Cretaceous angiosperms, insects, dinosaurs, reptiles, climate, and the end of Cretaceous extinction. Educators may find this site useful for review purposes and quick access to the most current research on Cretaceous life. ( This site is likely no longer available. )
  • Cretaceous:Tectonics and Paleoclimate. As part of the Berkeley Museum of Paleontology site, this page provides general information about earth systems of the Cretaceous Period. The site contains text, supporting diagrams and links to more detailed resources concerned with plate tectonics and past climates. Specific topics covered in this site include the rifting of Pangea, global climate, appearance and diversification of angiosperms, end of Cretaceous extinction and Chicxulub impact. (more info)
  • Extinction: Forest Fires Among the Trees of Life. This outline of a presentation on extinction reviews the various catastrophic events that could lead to extinction and lists the five great mass extinctions. Climate change is identified as the linking factor and recovery is also explained. (more info)
  • Extinctions: Cycles Of Life and Death Through Time. As part of the Hooper Virtual Paleontological Museum this site provides a detailed summary of extinction events throughout time, hypotheses for their causes and the long-term implications of such events. The text describes all of the major extinctions, including the Cretaceous/Tertiary extinction, with scientific illustrations, photos and artistic renditions. Specific topics include major and minor mass biologic extinctions, temporal patterns of extinction, the demise of the dinosaurs, and all Phanerozoic extinction events. (more info)
  • Mass Extinction Debates: How Science Works in a Crisis. Glen, 1994 This is a history of science project documenting a controversy as it unfolds. The controversy in question is whether the K/T extinction was caused by catastrophic volcanism or an asteroid impact. (citation and description)
  • Introduction to the Mesozoic Era. This site provides an overview of the Mesozoic Era. Additional information about each of the time periods comprising the Mesozoic Era is obtained by clicking the respective subdivisions on the provided time scale. Users may also browse by topic including stratigraphy, ancient life, fossil localities, and tectonics. Specific topics of interest are the origin of gymnosperms and angiosperms, and the evolution and extinction of dinosaurs. The site also features outcrop photos of the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek and Paleogene Fort Union Formations of Montana to aid in discussions of the Mesozoic and the demise of dinosaurs. (more info)
  • The Great Dinosaur Extinction Controversy. Officer and Page, 1996 The authors strongly oppose the impact theory of the death of the dinosaurs. They attack it both scientifically and sociologically and present evidence from a variety of fields to support the catastrophic-volcanism theory. (citation and description)
  • The Asteroid Impact vs. Volcano Greenhouse Dinosaur Extinction Debate. This paper discusses two theories of dinosaur extinction, and how Professor McLean's research led to one conclusion. The paper is available in a student version, as well as a science-political version. Several links throughout the text allow the user to access online information relevant to the article. (more info)
  • The Cretaceous/ Tertiary Boundary At Iridium Hill, Garfield County, Montana. The goal of this virtual field trip to Iridium Hill, Montana is to investigate the disappearance of dinosaur fossils above the Cretaceous/ Tertiary boundary. The site provides rock outcrop photos of Cretaceous and Tertiary strata (Hell Creek and Fort Union Formations), stratigraphic sections and supporting text for this classic iridium-bearing locality. Topics include the K/T boundary, iridium concentrations, stratigraphy, sedimentology and, fluvial and lacustrine depositional environments. (more info)
  • The KT Extinction. This website provides an excerpt on the KT boundary from an introductory text on paleontology. The text covers environmental and paleontological aspects of the extinction, including alternative hypotheses, and differential survival in different organismal groups. (more info)
  • Tracking the Course of Evolution: Extinction. This essay on mass extinction events (Ordovician, Devonian, Permian, Triassic, Cretaceous) in the geologic record is a chapter from History of Life, a book written by Richard Cowen, in which he discusses the general geologic body of knowledge surrounding each mass extinction event. Additionally, the author provides thirty-two (32) bibliographic references (primarily peer-reviewed science journals) on these mass extinction events. (more info)
  • On Methuselah's Trail: Living Fossils and the Great Extinctions. Ward, 1992 This book reviews modern survivors of lineages greatly reduced by mass extinctions and discusses why those lineages got hit so much harder than others. (citation and description)
  • What Killed The Dinosaurs?: The Great Mystery. This site presents theories about why the dinosaurs became extinct. The first page provides background information covering not only the "great dying" at the K-T boundary but also the mass extinction at the end of the Paleozoic Era. The author covers six factors that complicate the study of mass extinction including time resolution, the Signor-Lipps Effect, and falsifiability. A link then takes the reader to a second page where invalid extinction hypotheses are explained. These range from "hay fever killed the dinosaurs" to "the dinosaurs just faded away," (no causation implied). The final link leads us to current thinking about extinction including volcanism, plate tectonics, and the Alvarez Hypothesis. (more info)


Guided student activity: Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary: A Great Enigma.



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