Case-study Critical Analysis
(Extractive Research versus Supporting Indigenous Governance in Research)
This is a Course-Level Activity
PLEASE READ THIS FIRST
This Program and the principles and concepts underlying it are still being developed by the authors, who are in the process of preparing a manuscript for publication.Please do not transcribe, share, or cite any of the original content on this page without first receiving written permission from all of the authors.
Karletta Chief (Diné), The University of Arizona
Dominique David-Chavez, Colorado State University & Native Nations Institute, email@example.com
Ángel A. Garcia Jr., James Madison University, firstname.lastname@example.org
Darryl Reano, Florida International University, email@example.com
Steven Semken, Arizona State University at the Tempe Campus, firstname.lastname@example.org
Students review case studies in Earth and environmental science in which researchers engaged Indigenous communities and incorporated Indigenous knowledges.
Students critically assess the integrity of the research process with Indigenous communities using Indigenous rights- and governance-based indicators for responsible research.
The Indigenous integrity indicators use a scale from David-Chavez and Gavin (20181; see the figure below) for community engagement in terms of governance and authority in the research process. Students then reflect and discuss how the research process may impact the project outcomes and how they might adapt their own research process if student applied Indigenous integrity indicators to their own research protocol and proposal.
Scale for assessing levels of Indigenous community participation based on who has authority over the research process. From David-Chavez & Gavin, 2018; after Biggs, 1989 and Johnson et al., 2003.
Context for Use
The activity is designed for researchers (including but not limited to upper level undergraduate and graduate students, faculty, and professionals) that are engaging in research with Indigenous communities.
The activity is presented midway/towards the end of the certification program, after students have engaged in critical self-reflection, interpreted historical context, learned about different Indigenous rights and governance structures, and explored different Indigenous ways of knowing, values, and frameworks.
Design and Goals
The learning activity is a case study analysis which includes a learning activity summary, description, introduction, background, learning outcomes, directions, and guided questions.
Students review case studies in Earth and environmental science where researchers engaged Indigenous communities and incorporated Indigenous Knowledge(s). Students critically assess the integrity of the research process with Indigenous communities using Indigenous rights- and governance-based indicators for responsible research.
The Indigenous integrity indicators use a scale (see the above Figure) for community engagement in terms of governance and authority in the research process. Students then reflect and discuss how the research process may impact the project outcomes and how they might adapt their own research process by applying Indigenous integrity indicators to their own research protocol and proposal.
- Students will obtain skills necessary for constructing the foundation of a research protocol that will be used for co-design with appropriate advisory bodies (e.g., local researcher, tribal IRB, community advisory board) and a process for ongoing review.
- Students will identify mechanisms for holding accountability to communities in existing codes of ethics and frameworks applied in wise (best) practices for research with Indigenous communities (e.g., CTKW guidelines2, UNDRIP3, ISE Code of Ethics4, etc.).
Students will assess where each case study falls on the scale and write responses for each indicator for responsible research to justify their assessment.
10 Questions for Guiding Responsible Research Practice with Indigenous Communities
- Are Indigenous community members included in the decision to initiate the study?
- To what level do Indigenous community members have authority in the research design (see scale for levels: None or Contractual (employment-related), Consultative, Collaborative, Collegial, Indigenous)?
- To what level do Indigenous community members have authority regarding the implementation of the research?
- To what level do Indigenous community members have authority regarding the analysis of the research?
- Are findings accessible to Indigenous community members?
- Are findings reported in the context of concerns, issues or interests defined by Indigenous community members?
- How were Indigenous community members credited for their knowledge contributions and efforts (i.e. acknowledgement, co-authorship)?
- Did the study report ethical guidelines followed, such as Free Prior and Informed Consent?
- Did the study address intellectual property rights or risks for Indigenous communities?
- Did the study report any outputs or outcomes for the Indigenous community?
Adapted from David-Chavez & Gavin, 2018, developed primarily from the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, the Climate and Traditional Knowledges Workgroup guidelines for considering traditional knowledge in climate change initiatives, and the International Society of Ethnobiology Code of Ethics.
1David-Chavez, D. M. & Gavin, M. C. (2018). A global assessment of Indigenous community engagement in climate research. Environmental Research Letters, 13 (12), December 2018, 123005, doi: https://www.doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aaf300
2Chief, K., A.M. Chischilly, P. Cochran, M. Durglo, P. Hardison, J. Hostler, K. Lynn, G. Morishima, D. Motanic, J. St. Arnold, C. Viles, G. Voggesser, K. Powys Whyte, D. Wildcat, S. Wotkyns. 2014. Guidelines for Considering Traditional Knowledges in Climate Change Initiatives Version 1.0, September 2014, Climate and Traditional Knowledges Workgroup (CTKW) (https://climatetkw.wordpress.com).
3United Nations General Assembly 2007 United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (United Nations General Assembly)
4ISE 2006 ISE Code of Ethics (with 2008 additions). (International Society of Ethnobiology)