Methodological and Epistemic Differences between Historical Science and Experimental Science
Carol E. Cleland 2002 Philosophy of Science v69 p474-496
This paper rejects the claim that historical research is epistemically inferior. It argues that scientists engage in two very different patterns of evidential reasoning and, although there is overlap, one pattern predominates in historical research and the other pattern predominates in classical experimental research. These different patterns of reasoning are grounded in an objective and remarkably pervasive time asymmetry of nature.