This image shows a sample output from My World GIS for this chapter. Click the thumbnail for a larger view.
High school (upper-class, level 11-12) or undergraduate Earth Science college course.
After completing this chapter, students will be able to:
- Download geospatial data for GIS analyses;
- Map, graph, and analyze geospatial information; and
- Interpret the results of GIS analyses to understand the relationship between earthquake locations, plate boundaries, and seismic waves.
- Students completing this chapter should have already explored and understand the relationship between tectonic plate boundaries and earthquake epicenters.
- The Earth's Interior
Three main layers: Crust, Mantle, and Core.
- Tectonic Plate Boundaries
Four types of plate boundaries are recognized by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS): Divergent, Convergent, Transform, and Plate-boundary zones. The new designation of plate-boundary zone identifies areas that are not well defined and the effects of plate interaction remain unclear.
- Detecting Layer Changes Using Secondary or Shear Wave Velocities
The transition from crust to mantle can be detected by an increase in secondary (shear) wave velocities.
- Changes In Shear Wave Velocities With Depth
Velocity Changes Based on Composition, Temperature, and Pressure.
In the context of plate tectonics, this chapter explores the relationships among a seismic shear wave velocity model, earthquake epicenters, and tectonic plate boundaries. Although it deals with how a solid Earth dataset can be used within a geographic information system (GIS), many of the chapter's procedures can be applied to other datasets.
The primary goal of this chapter is to graph the changes in seismic shear wave velocities across the North American continent. The relative changes in wave velocity indicate density differences between Earth's crust and upper mantle.
This chapter can be used in conjunction with other plate tectonic investigations included in the Earth Exploration Toolbook.
The following National Science Education Standards are supported by this chapter:
- Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications.
- Formulate and revise scientific explanations and models using logic and evidence.
- Natural and human induced hazards present the need for humans to assess potential danger and risk.
The following U.S. National Geography Standards are supported by this chapter:
- How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
- How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on earth's surface
Right-click to save these files to your desktop. They do not need to be un-zipped before using in My World.
- Seismic Wave My world project ( 2.4MB Jul28 11)
- Seismic Wave Part 4 ( 2.4MB Jul30 11)This file contains the selections completed in Part 4.
- Seismic Wave Part 5 ( 2.5MB Jul30 11)This file contains the, selections as well as the additional linked graph (optional) from Part 4.
- Finished graphs of seismic wave data in Excel (Excel 28kB Jul30 11)This file contains the data and graph from Part 4.