A Role-Play ActivityCreated by Jen Millner, Geoscience Education Web Development Team, Montana State University
Role-playing is simultaneously interesting and useful to students because it emphasizes the "real-world" side of science. It challenges them to deal with complex problems with no single "right" answer and to use a variety of skills beyond those employed in a typical research project. For further information about teaching with the Role Playing Technique, see the Starting Point collection.
The current Winter Use Plan remains in effect through the 2006-2007 season. As the end of this interim period draws near, the controversy between environmentalists and snowmobilers heats up once again with both sides lobbying for their cause. A summit is called to attempt to find an agreeable solution for all interested parties.
Use a role-playing approach to explore the different sides to this complex story. Depending on the amount of students, divide up to six groups representing
- consulting scientists (geologists, biologists, chemists, atmospheric scientists)
- members of the International Snowmobile Manufacturers Association
- local business owners from border communities such as West Yellowstone, Montana, and Cody, Wyoming
- a regional environmental organization
- Yellowstone National Park Rangers
- an out-of-state family taking a winter vacation
- Consulting scientists should examine the full text reports on air and water quality, considering both the immediate and potential long-term effects of emissions. To begin, examine resources in the Impacts on Air Quality and Impacts on Snowpack Chemistry and Water Quality sections.
- Start with Air Quality Analysis of Snowmobile and Snowcoach Emissions or Effects of Snowmobile Use on Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds in the Yellowstone National Park Snowpack (found in the 'Show me' links under air and water quality, respectively).
- International Snowmobile Manufacturers Association representatives should review resources pertaining to the economics of snowmobiling, snowmobile technologies, impacts on wildlife, and civil rights. To begin, review resources in Economic Impacts, Proposed Solutions and Alternatives, and Impacts on Wildlife sections.
- Start with Wildlife Responses to Motorized Winter Recreation in Yellowstone (first page) or Over-Snow Vehicle Sound Level Measurements (pdf)
- Business owners should investigate the impacts on the tourist economy, both from snowmobiles and from proposed options such as snowcoaches. Begin by looking at resources in Economic Impacts and Proposed Solutions and Alternatives. Also consider that there are more than 500 miles of National Forest trails in the region just outside of Yellowstone National Park.
- Start with Economic Importance of Winter Season to Park County, Wyoming or Yellowstone Guides and Visitors Praise Snowmobile Phaseout's Positive Impact on Park Conditions or review economic analyses in the Final Rule
- Environmental activists should examine all the scientific evidence, as well as impacts on wildlife and aesthetic considerations like noise level. Look at the resources in Impacts on Air Quality, Impacts on Snowpack Chemistry and Water Quality, Noise Level Impacts, Impacts on Wildlife and Public Opinion. Also consider whether the presence of snowmobiles in Yellowstone violates legal Park Service mandates.
- Start with Reversal for Yellowstone: Immediate Increase in Snowmobile Numbers Setback for Public Health, Conservation of First National Park, Park's advocates blast noise by snowmobiles (Billings Gazette, March 10, 2001) or Editorial Board Briefer: Snowmobiles in Yellowstone National Park.
- Yellowstone Park Rangers will want to consider air and water quality, noise levels, and impacts on wildlife, as well as the responsibility of a ranger to uphold Park and government regulations, including civil rights. Begin by loooking at resources in Impacts on Air Quality, Impacts on Snowpack Chemistry and Water Quality or Impacts on Wildlife. Also consider the legal history of this controversy as well as the mission of Yellowstone National Park.
- Start with Environmental and Occupational Exposure to Toxic Air Pollutants from Winter Snowmobile Use in Yellowstone National Park or Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System; Final Rule.
- Families of tourists should examine their options, including snowmobiling (either inside or outside the park), snowcoach, cross-country skiing and snowshoeing. They should also review the scientific, legal, and economic impacts of the snowmobile industry and take those into consideration because for this demographic, to snowmobile or not to snowmobile is an ethical choice as much as anything.
- Begin with the West Yellowstone Chamber of Commerce's "White Season", the Cody, Wyoming Chamber of Commerce's "Outdoor Recreation", and Yellowstone Expedition's snowcoach information page.
Once students have compiled evidence, groups will spend 30 minutes in class developing their position. Each group will decide on the essential evidence that supports their point of view, making sure to address the questions posed in the above tutorial. Groups should also work to develop potential solutions that address the issues they feel are most important. Furthermore, each group should comment on how their position complies with the legal mandates of the National Park Service and Yellowstone National Park by answering the following question:
- The EPA has cited Executive Order 11644, which allows off-road vehicles (including snowmobiles) in national parks only if "that off-road vehicle use will not adversely affect natural, aesthetic or scenic values." After reviewing the facts, figures and opinions, do you think that allowing snowmobiles in Yellowstone violates this order?
For the next 30 minutes groups will engage in an active debate, defending their positions based solely on the supporting evidence. Time permitting, the activity will end with a round table discussion about the overall issue and what might be the best solution to finally resolve the controversy over snowmobiles in Yellowstone National Park.
There is no right or wrong answer to this complicated, controversial question. Students should be assessed on their ability to discover relevant facts and evidence, mastery of facts, ability to use facts to further their argument, citation of credible sources, and evidence of making logical arguments. Each person should hand in an outline showing the key points of their group's position and the evidence used to support it. Using the evidence they have found, students should also identify and contest the major points made by the other groups.