Winogradsky Columns

John Lennox, Penn State

This is an exercise about Winogradsky Columns with emphasis placed on the formation and properties of microbial biofilms. It includes background reference material, a field/lab exercise, and several applications. Applications include methods for sampling column layers and a description of how to measure the electro-chemical gradient that develops within the column. Scientific illustrations and images are included as visual references.

This resource is referenced here:
Subject: Biology:Ecology:Symbiotic Relations:Mutualism, Biology:Ecology:Principles, Metabolism, Symbiotic Relations, Biofilms, Biology:Microbiology
Resource Type: Audio/Visual:Images/Illustrations, Scientific Resources:Overview/Reference Work, Activities:Field Activity:Field laboratories, Activities:Lab Activity
Special Interest: Field-Based Teaching and Learning
Grade Level: College Lower (13-14), High School (9-12), Intermediate (3-5), Middle (6-8)
Extreme Environments: Anoxic