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References and Resources on Undergraduate Research

Student Development, Student-Centered Learning and the Teacher-Scholar

American Council of Learned Societies Teagle Working Group of the Teacher-Scholar. (2007). Student learning and faculty research: Connecting teaching and scholarship. [White paper].

This report describes how the teacher-scholar model of professional activity benefits students, faculty, and institutions, and it describes the deep learning offered by undergraduate research experiences as a critical activity of the teacher-scholar.

Astin, A. (1993). What matters in college: Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

One conclusion of this update to his Four Critical Years is that student-oriented faculty have a positive effect on student learning, satisfaction, and development.

Bowen, Stephen. (2005). Engaged learning: Are we all on the same page? Peer Review: Winter, 4-7.

The author distinguishes between four ways eduators consider engaged learning: engagement with the learning process, engagement with the object of study, engagement with contexts, and engagement with the human condition.

Boyer, E.L. (1997). A community of scholars. The Emory Symposium, Atlanta, Georgia, 14 April, 1994. In Selected Speeches, 1979-1995 (pp. 69-80). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Boyer Commission on Educating Undergraduates in the Research University, S.S. Kenney (chair). (1998). Reinventing undergraduate education: A blueprint for America's research universities. State University of New York-Stony Brook.

Boyer's explorations of the need for curricular reform argue for inquiry-based undergraduate learning, including involving undergraduates in the research process.

Chickering, A. & Gamson, Z. (1987). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. The Wingspread Journal 9(2).

Chickering, A. & Gamson, Z. (1991). Applying the seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. New Directions in Teaching and Learning, 47, 5-12.

Together these reports offer best practices in undergraduate education, provide examples, and discuss the ways in which these practices benefit students, faculty, and institutions.

Elgrin, T. & Hensel, N. (2006). Undergraduate research experiences: Synergies between scholarship and teaching. Peer Review: Winter, 4-7.

The authors make the case for undergraduate research as a form of active learning that benefits students, faculty, and institutions. They describe several institutions' models of undergraduate research.

Fleming, N. (2003). Establishing rapport: Personal interaction and learning.

This report offers identifies ways faculty can enhance rapport with students to enhance student learning.

Kolson, K., & Yuen, S. (1993, February). On reconciling teaching and research. American Association for Higher Education Bulletin, 7-10.

These authors describe the uses, benefits, and challenges of offering undergraduate research experiences, focusing especially on undergraduate research in the humanities.

Malachowski, M. (2003). A research-across-the-curriculum movement. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 93, 55-68.

Malachowski argues for a student-centered as opposed to research-oriented approach to scholarship.

National Science Foundation Advisory Committee to the Directorate for Education and Human Resources. (1996) Shaping the future: New expectations for undergraduate education in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology.

The report asserts that "All students have access to supportive, excellent undergraduate education in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology, and all students learn these subjects by direct experience with the methods and processes of inquiry."

Pascarella, E. T. & Terenzini, P.T. (2005). How college affects students (Vol. 2). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

This volume reports results from a third decade of study of learning and development in the college years. It finds that "the most effective teaching and learning require opportunities for active student involvement and participation" (p. 646).

Paul, E. (2006). Community-based research as scientific and civic pedagogy. Peer Review: Winter, 12-15.

This article briefly describes underlying principles and benefits of community-based research.

Perry, W. (1970). Forms of ethical and intellectual development in the college years. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Perry's classic text describes four stages of student development and argues that the stage that a particular stuent is in determines her sense of the origins and nature of knowledge as well as the sense she makes of her educational experience.

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Educational Objectives

Anderson, L.W. & Krathwohl, D.R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. New York, NY: Longman.
This updated list of cognitive learning objectives suggests students should be able to remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, and create.

Bloom, B.S. (Ed.) (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Book 1, Cognitive Domain. New York: Longman.

This is the classic text on the classification of cognitive educational objectives. Its companion is Krathwohl, Bloom & Masia (1964).

Krathwohl, D.R., Bloom, B.S., & Masia, B.B. (1964). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Book 2, Affective Domain. New York: Longman.

This is the follow-up to Bloom's (1956) taxonomy of cognitive educational objectives.

National Research Council Committee on the Addendum to National Science Education Standards on Scientific Inquiry, Olsen, R. & S. Loucks-Horsley (Eds). (2000). Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

This report makes the case for inquiry-based learning in K-12 education.

Saunders, P. (1998). Learning theory and instructional objectives. In W. Walstad and P. Saunders (Eds.), Teaching undergraduate economics (pp. 85-108). Boston, MA: Irwin McGraw-Hill.

Saunders' review of learning theory is tailored to teachers of undergraduate economics developing lesson objectives.

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Assessments of Undergraduate Research Experiences

Bauer, K. & Bennett, J. (2003). Alumni perceptions used to assess undergraduate research experiences. Journal of Higher Education: 74(2), 210-230.

This study of alumni perceptions of skills developed in college, and of the benefits of those skills, points to the ways in which educational value is enhanced by undergraduate research experiences.

Borg, M. & Perry-Sizemore, E. (2008). The effects of undergraduate research experiences on critical thinking skills. Manuscript in preparation, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, and Randolph College, Lynchburg, Virginia.

Borg and Perry-Sizemore use the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Inventory to measure critical thinking skill development from undergradaute research.

Hunter, A., Laursen, S., & Seymour, E. (2006). Becoming a scientist: The role of undergraduate research in students' cognitive, personal, and professional development. Science Education 91(1), 36-74.

This 4-college study of faculty and student assessments of students' undergraduate research experiences suggest that the practice promotes cognitive and and personal development. Faculty perceive undergraduate research to socialize students into the sciences.

Ishiyama, John. (2002). Does early participation in undergraduate research benefit social science and humanities students? College Student Journal 36(3).

In this study of undergraduate research at one institution, the author finds that early involvement in undergraduate research helps students gather and evaluate information, think critically, and work more independently. He presents limited evidence that these benefits may be most pronounced for first-generation college students.

Kardash, C. (2000). Evaluation of an undergraduate research experience: Perceptions of undergraduate interns and their faculty mentors. Journal of Educational Psychology 92(2), 191-201.

Undergraduates in the sciences self-report their achievement of 14 research skills pre- and post- participation in an undergraduate research experience. When considered with their faculty mentors' assessments of these students' skills, the overall conclusion is that undergraduate research experiences enhance research skills.

Lopatto, D. (2003, March). The essential features of undergraduate research. Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly (2), 139-142.

Lopatto, D. (2004). Survey of undergraduate research experiences (SURE): First findings. Cell Biology Education3, 270-277.

In this study of undergraduate research experiences at 41 institutions, Lopatto finds that students report learning gains related to both the research process and personal development, with the most significant gains reported by students who entered undergraduate research experiences with interest in postgraduate education or developed that interest within the undergraduate research experience. Patterns in benefits and career aspirations do not vary significantly by gender or ethnicity.

Lopatto, D. (2006). Undergraduate research as a catalyst for liberal learning. Peer Review: Winter.

This article offers a brief review of recent studies of the benefits of undergraduate research experiences.

Lopatto, D. (2009). Science in solution: The impact of undergraduate research on student learning. Resource Corporation for Science Advancement.

Lopatto summarizes research on the benefits of undergraduate research and mentoring to student learning. He discusses the teacher-scholar model and the role of undergraduate research in transforming institutions.

Nagda, B.A., Gregerman, S.R. , Jonides, J., VonHippel, W., & Lerner, J.S. (1998). Undergraduate student-faculty research partnerships affect student retention. Review of Higher Education 22(1), 55-72.

This article reports that participation in undergraduate research increases retention within the institution, especially for African American students, and for sophomores more than first-years.

Seymour, E., Hunter, A., Laursen, S., & DeAntoni, T. (2003). Establishing the benefits of research experiences for undergraduates in the sciences: First findings from a three-year study. Science Education 88(4),493-534.

In this study of 76 students at 4 liberals arts colleges, 91% report learning and personal/professional development gains from summer undergraduate research experiences.

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Developing Undergraduate Research Experiences: Advice and Models

Boyd, M, & Wesemann, J. (Eds.). (2009). Broadening participation in undergraduate research: Fostering excellence and enhancing the impact. Washington, D.C.: Council on Undergraduate Research.

This text is primarily intended for those wishing to develop and sustain undergraduate research programs at their institutions. Certain chapters emphasize means of increasing undergradaute research participation and outcomes among underrepresented groups.

CUR Quarterly. Council on Undergraduate Research.

This publication of the Council on Undergraduate Research devotes issues to such topics as outcomes assessment and models of undergraduate research across disciplines and institutions.

*Issues often have articles unique to specific disciplines.

Hakim, T. (2000). At the interface of scholarship and teaching: How to develop and administer institutional undergraduate research programs. Washington, DC: Council on Undergraduate Research.

This text offers practical suggestions for institutionalizing undergraduate research.

Healey, M. & Jenkins, A. (2009). Developing undergraduate research and inquiry. Higher Education Academy.

The authors offer recommendations for developing undergraduate research experiences at both the departmental and institutional level and discuss the role of national organizations in promoting undergraduate research.

*This publication includes short case studies of undergraduate research experiences in the early- and late undergraduate years, and in the humanities, social sciences, interdisciplinary studies, and STEM disciplines.

Karukstis, K. K., and Elgren, T.E. (Eds.). (2007). Developing and sustaining a research-supportive curriculum: A compendium of successful practices. Washington, D.C.: Council on Undergraduate Research.

This text describes practices for developing and maintaining a research-focused undergraduate curriculum. Attention is given to teaching approaches that promote research skills, with case studies of courses and programs and descriptions of successful institional support. Research skill-promoting teaching approaches addressed in this book include investigative case-based learning, problem-based learning, debate, and cooperative learning.

*Special chapters devoted to undergraduate research in biology, chemistry, engineering, environmental science, and psychology.

Kinkead, J. (Ed.). (2003). Valuing and supporting undergraduate research [Special issue]. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 93.

This volume is devoted entirely to the undergraduate research movement, offering practical suggestions for individual faculty and institutions of various types and sizes.

Kinkead, J. (2003). Learning through inquiry: An overview of undergraduate research. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 93, 5-17.

Kinkead defines undergraduate research, describes the impetus for the undergraduate research movement, and highlights several issues of significance to adminstrators of UR programs.

Merkel, C.A., & Baker, S.M. (2002). How to mentor undergraduate researchers. Washington, D.C.: Council on Undergraduate Research.

This publication addresses the importance of quality mentoring in undergraduate research and offers tips for improving mentoring.

Miller, R. L., Rycek, R.F., Balcetis, E., Barney, S.T., Beins, B. C., Burns, S.R., et al. (Eds.). (2008). Developing, promoting, and sustaining the undergraduate research experience in psychology.

While directed at psychologists, this ebook is of value to a wider audience in that it covers institutionalizing undergraduate research, examples and best practices for individual faculty in a variety of disciplines, recommendations for dissemination of research results, and perspectives on assessment.


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Undergraduate Research in the Disciplines

Note: Also see the part of this page called Developing Undergraduate Research Experiences, as some books directed at general audiences have special chapters devoted to practices and programs in individual disciplines. These texts are marked with an * in that section, with disciplines identified.

If you know of discipline-specific resources not listed here, please contact epsizemore@randolphcollege.edu to have them considered for inclusion on this page.


Borg, M. & Perry, E. (2007). Why, where and how undergraduate research matters to economics. Manuscript in preparation, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, and Randolph College, Lynchburg, Virginia.

This papers describes the undergraduate research movement for economists and offers two case studies of undergraduate research experiences in the disicpline.

Borg, M., DeLoach, S. & Perry-Sizemore, E. (2010). Creating quality undergraduate research programs in economics: How, when, where (and why). Manuscript in preparation, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, Elon University, Elon, and Randolph College, Lynchburg, Virginia.

The authors offer a taxonomy of the various ways undergraduate students can engage in meaningful research in economics.

Carlson, J. L., Cohn, R.L. & Ramsey, D.D. (2002). Implementing Hansen's proficiencies. Journal of Economic Education, 33(2), 180-191.

The authors describe a program for the major oriented around Hansen's proficiencies and including a capstone experience.

Colander, D. & McGoldrick, K. (Eds.) (2009). Educating economists: The Teagle discussion on re-evaluating the undergraduate economics major. Northhampton, MA: Elgar.

The Teagle report examines "the relationship between the goals and objectives of the economics major and the goals and objectives of a liberal eduction" (3). The chapters of this text reflect and advise on these goals and objectives.

Greenlaw, S.A. (2006). Doing economics: a guide to understanding the carrying out economic research. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

This text for students includes proposal and research paper rubrics for faculty.

Greenlaw, S.A., and DeLoach, S.B. (2003). Teaching critical thinking with electronic discussion. Journal of Economic Education, 34(1), 36-52.

The authors describe how criticial thinking can be fostered with electronic discussion and provide a framework for assessing such learning.

Hansen, W. L. (2001). Expected proficiencies for undergraduate economics majors. Journal of Economic Education, 32(3), 231-242.

Hansen, W.L. (2006, March). Proficiency-based economics course examinations. Paper presented at the meeting of the Midwest Economics Association, Chicago, IL.

Hansen, W.L. (2007, November). Expected proficiencies in the economics major: Their place in a liberal education. Paper presented at the meeting of the Southern Economic Association, New Orleans, LA.

In these papers and presentations, the author identifies expected proficiencies of economics majors and argues for setting learning objectives by them.

McElroy, J. (1997). The mentor demonstration model: writing with students in the senior economics seminar. Journal of Economic Education, 28 (1), 31-35.

The authors discuss a research and writing senior seminar in which students work on independent projects in a field chosen by the instructor, who develops and shares his own research as students complete theirs.

McGoldrick, K. (2007). Undergraduate research in economics. Handbook for Economics Lecturers.

McGoldrick assesses the current state of undergraduate research in economics, provides a rationale for undergraduate research in the discipline, and offers tipcs for project development, mentoring, and assessment. Case studies are provided.

McGoldrick, K. (2008). Writing requirements and economic research opportunities in the undergraduate curriculum: Results from a survey of departmental practices. Journal of Economic Education, 39(3), 287-96.

McGoldrick surveys economics departments and reports on the degree to which research and writing opportunties are required of economics majors an the forms they assume.

McGoldrick, K. (2008). Doing economics: Enhancing skills through a process-oriented senior research course. Journal of Economic Education, 39(4), 342-355.

This article describes a senior-level course in which students choose and complete independent research projects.

McGoldrick, K. & Peterson, J. (2009). Public scholarship and economics: Engaging students in the democratic process. Forum for Social Economics, 38(2-3), 229-245.

This paper describes a public scholarship project on women and the economy.

McGoldrick, K. and Ziegert, A. (Eds.). (2002). Putting the invisible hand to work: Concepts and models for service learning in economics. Ann Arbor: U Michigan Press.

This text describes service learning and offers recommendations and examples for its use in economics. Some applications fit the definition of undergraduate research.

Salemi, M. & Siegfried, J.J. (1999). The state of economic education. American Economic Review, 89(2), 355-61.

The authors make the case for more active learning in economics and for a Hansen's proficiencies approach to the major.

Santos, J & Lavin, A.M. (2004). Do as I do, not as I say: Assessing outcomes when students think like economists. Journal of Economic Education, 35(2), 148-61.

The authors assess deep learning from an empirical research curriculum in economics.

Siegfried, J.J., Bartlett, R., Hansen, W.L., Kelly, A., McClosky, & Tietenberg, T. (1991). The status and prospects of the economics major. Journal of Economic Education, 22(3), 197-224.

Siegfried et al. make the case that every undergraduate economics major should be expected to "do economics".

Saunders, P. (1998). Learning theory and instructional objectives. In W. Walstad and P. Saunders (Eds.), Teaching Undergraduate Economics (pp. 85-108). Boston, MA: Irwin McGraw-Hill.

Saunders' review of learning theory is tailored to teachers of undergraduate economics developing lesson objectives.

Thoma, G. A. (1993). The Perry framework and tactics for teaching critical thinking in economics. Journal of Economic Education, 24, 128-136.

Thoma describes the Perry and Nelson models of student development and offers suggestions for how to consider student development in the teaching of economics.

Ziegert, A. & McGoldrick, K. (2008). When service is good for economics: Linking the classroom and community through service learning. International Review of Economics Education, 7(2), 39-56.

The authors describe the motivation for service learning and offer tips for faculty considering incorporating it into their classrooms.

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STEM Disciplines

Project Kaleidoscope

The PKAL alliance works to improve undergraduate education in STEM disciplines.

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Resources for Students

Note: These are primarily learning resources for students, but you can also read about information on funding opportunities, conferences, and journals.

American Economic Association's Committee on the Status of Women in the Economics Profession. (2005, Spring/Summer). Giving an effective presentation. CSWEP Newsletter.

These presentation tips for economists are also useful for students giving in-class or conference presentations.

Greenlaw, S.A. (2005). Doing economics: a guide to understanding and carrying out economic research. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

This undergraduate text walks students through steps of the research process in economics.


WebGURU is a guide to undergraduate research in the STEM disciplines. Topics include project design and implementation, workplace discipline, research ethics, lab safety, and working with mentors.

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