Schematic of subglacial cavity network

Idealized subglacial cavity network in plan view (A) and cross section (B). Unshaded areas are regions of ice-rock contact; shaded areas are regions of ice-rock separation (cavities). Flow directions in the cavities are indicated by arrows. Orifices are the most constricted parts of the cavity network and account for most of the energy losses. From Fountain and Walder, 1998, originally after Kamb, 1987.

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Fountain and Walder, 1998
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