# An Assessment of Hillslope Stability Using the Factor of Safety

**This activity was selected for the On the Cutting Edge Exemplary Teaching Collection**

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### This activity has benefited from input from a review and suggestion process as a part of an activity development workshop.

This activity has benefited from input from faculty educators beyond the author through a review and suggestion process as a part of an activity development workshop. Workshop participants were provided with a set of criteria against which they evaluated each others' activities. To learn more about this review process, see http://serc.carleton.edu/quantskills/review_processes.html#2005.

This page first made public: Oct 23, 2009

#### Summary

## Learning Goals

- Topical Goals
- Predict hillslope stability using the Factor of Safety (FS)
- Assess which variables involved in calculating FS are mostly likely to change
- Assess the sensitivity of FS to changes in hillslope parameters

- Quantitative Skills Goals
- Formulate the expression for FS in an Excel spreadsheet
- Use Excel to calculate FS within the context of a sensitivity analysis
- Develop a sense of how a change in parameters affects model output

## Context for Use

This activity works well when assigned as a problem set to be completed individually. It can also be incoporated into part of a lab on mass wasting.

The activity is assigned toward the end of a mass wasting unit in an upper-level Earth Surface Processes class. Prior to receiving the assignment students have developed an understanding of hillslope processes and slope stability through lecture, class activities and a hill slope lab. Immediately preceeding the assignment, the concept of mass wasting as a threshold process is introduced. Equations for shear stress and shear strength are also developed for the infinite slope case and the factor of safety is given as a means for assessing the balance between driving and resisting forces.

The activity is followed by a discussion of the reflection piece of the assignment which leads naturally into presentation of the different types of mass wasting events and how they are classified.

## Description and Teaching Materials

- Factor of Safety Activity- Student Handout (Microsoft Word 51kB Jun29 05)
- Factor of Safety Activity- Instructor Answer Key (Microsoft Word 60kB Jun29 05)
- Factor of Safety Spreadsheet- Student (Excel 14kB Jun29 05)
- Factor of Safety Spreadsheet- Instructor (Excel 15kB Jun29 05)

## Teaching Notes and Tips

- Present shear stress and shear strength, the concept of mass wasting as a threshold process and the FS equation, as described in the answer key, prior to assigning this activity.
- Emphasize the importance of returning the parameters to their initial values in between each step of the sensitivity analysis.
- Direct students to consider the percent change in FS that results from changing parameters in the sensitivity analysis. This is useful because students sometimes have difficulty comparing the changes that result from altering different variables. But, it can be useful to follow the assignment with a discussion of whether or not percent change in FS is really the most useful means for considering the sensitivity of a hillslope to changes in a parameter. For example, when FS is close to one, even a small percent change can sufficently alter the balance between driving and resisting forces to cause failure.
- Encourage students to collaborate with each other and to discuss their results with classmates.