Soil and The Carbon Cycle
Part B: Permafrost, a Frozen Soil Starting to Thaw!
- To learn about permafrost, watch Thawing Permafrost at NBCLearn's Changing Planet website. Next, watch the YouTube - A Thawing Climate video, below.
- As you watch the video, make note of the following:
- Evidence that permafrost is thawing
- Evidence that methane(CH4) exists in large amounts in the permafrost
- What evidence did you observe that permafrost is thawing?
- What evidence did you observe that methane exists in large amounts in the permafrost?
Permafrost: the basics
What is permafrost?
Permafrost is soil, sediment or rock that is perennially frozen and may or may not contain a significant amount of ice. The soil layer on top of the permafrost is called the active layer because it freezes in winter and and thaws in the summer. The permafrost, just below the active layer, stays frozen for at least two consecutive years. Can you identify the active layer and the frozen permafrost layer in the picture on the left?
Where is permafrost located?
Approximately 25% of the world's terrestrial land surface is covered by permafrost. Permafrost is found in the cold latitudes of both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. However, permafrost predominates in the Northern latitudes and lies underneath the northern Boreal Forests and the vast northern tundra.
- Click on Frozen Carbon to see where permafrost is located in the Northern Hemisphere.
- Take a few minutes to familiarize yourself with the information in "Frozen Carbon."
- Then, answer the Checking In questions below.
How deep is permafrost?
Is permafrost permanent?
Scientists do not expect all of the permafrost to thaw, however, some permafrost areas will be more vulnerable to thawing than others. Factors such as topography, vegetation cover, snow cover and soil moisture influence the amount of permafrost in localized regions and their vulnerability to thawing. Some permafrost will thaw abruptly leading to rapid collapse of the ground as seen in this time lapse video of still images of thawed permafrost taken at Horn Lake in northern Alaska during the summer of 2010.
Why is permafrost thawing?
How much carbon is in permafrost?
Consider the diagram of permafrost soil on the above-right and make special note of the active layer. This layer contains carbon from dead plants and animals that have died within the past few years. The permafrost contains very old carbon- perhaps hundreds to thousands of years old. When this permafrost melts, the carbon is made available to microbes which then produce carbon dioxide and methane.
With your partner or group, answer the following questions:
- Describe how changes in the depth of the active layer of the freeze-thaw cycle could "unlock" some of the Arctic carbon in this soil.
- What role would microbes have in this process?
Soil Microbes and Methane (CH4)Double Trouble?
Examine the image on the right, illustrating Arctic researcher Katey Anthony lighting methane gas bubbling up from a pond on the University of Alaska, Fairbanks campus. Where does this methane come from?
If you guessed soil microbes, you are correct! Although Arctic methane has many different sources, a primary source for methane in the permafrost are microbes. Not all soil microbes respire in exactly the same way. Methanogens are a group of microbes that produce methane instead of CO2 when they respire. Methanogens live and thrive in very low-oxygen (anoxic) environments such as the muddy bottom of the pond in this image. You will typically find methanogens in water-logged, anoxic environments such as wetlands, marshes, bogs, muddy bottoms of lakes, and rice paddies. With its seasonal thawing and freezing, much of the Arctic tundra is water-logged and thus is a welcome home to methanogens.
Methane - Another Greenhouse Gas!
Stop and Think:
1: Explain how a thawing permafrost creates ideal environments for methane-producing microbes (methanogens).
2: How might permafrost microbes impact the current greenhouse effect if the permafrost continues to thaw?
Tracking carbon in a warming tundra
Follow the work of two researchers who are tracking carbon in the warming Arctic tundra.
- First, watch a video of Dr. Katey W. Anthony Hunting for Methane in the Arctic.
- Next, watch a slideshow and read an article on Arctic research being carried out by Dr. Ted Schuur, a noted Arctic ecologist. In the article, Dr. Schuur describes at least two possible scenarios that could have potential impacts on the carbon cycle in a warming Arctic tundra:
- Impact 1: Warming increases plant growth and it promotes the invasion of shrubs and trees into tundra landscapes. Both of these processes can increase the amount of carbon stored in plant biomass, thus reducing the amount of C in the atmosphere.
- Impact 2: At the same time, permafrost thaw may stimulate the microbial decomposition of the carbon in soil. This decomposition can decrease the amount of stored carbon by releasing more CO 2 into the atmosphere. These metabolic by-products of respiration. (CO 2 and CH4) are the same "greenhouse gases" involved in climate change.
Thus, when permafrost thaws, the thawing may affect the cycling of C to or from the atmosphere, which can create additional global-scale impacts."
- As you view and read about the researchers' work, think about the following:
- What are they doing to track the carbon in carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) as the tundra warms?
- What evidence do they find that would indicate that the release of CO2and/or CH4 is being amplified?
- Does their research "uncover" evidence for possible feedback mechanisms as the permafrost thaws?
With a partner or group, review your notes on Dr. Anthony's and Dr. Schuur's research. Are a warming Arctic climate and a thawing Permafrost related to each other in a feedback loop? Use your notes to draw a diagram of any potential feedback loops that might exist due to a warming Arctic climate. When you are done, share your feedback diagrams with the class.
- Are these potential feedback loops positive (amplifying) or negative (dampening)? How do you know?
- Would these permafrost feedback loops impact only the Arctic, or do they impact the global carbon cycle? Explain your reasoning for your answer.
- Investigate how much the thaw depth of the active layer has changed over time at different research sites in the Arctic by going to the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring Network site - CALM.
- After you read about CALM, click on the data tab in the menu on top.
- Then click on the map on the left-hand side. This will take you to the next page where you will see a CALM summary data table of site averages of the annual end-of -season thaw depth (cm).
- Choose data from an Arctic location and a measurement type - (P - mechanical probing, T- ground temperature measurement or TT - thaw tube measurements) Note that at some sites, more than one type of measurement has been taken.
- Graph data from one or more sites. Report how the depth of the active layer has been changing from the date of the first measurement. What trends and variability to you see in the data? Are these trends and variability the same in all locations?
- Read some interesting methane facts at Methane
- Read more about shrubs and the changing ecology of the Arctic tundra