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Why use Just-in-Time Teaching?

Simply put, JiTT works- a finding backed by research and practice.

JiTT pedagogy builds on decades of research on effective teaching practices and is grounded in learning sciences research that emphasizes active student engagement in the learning process.

In addition, course-based research in a number of disciplines has shown that JiTT has a positive impact on student learning outcomes, while at the same time increasing in-class teaching efficiency and effectiveness.
Linda Nilson's popular Teaching at its Best (2010) highlights JiTT as an effective "inquiry-guided learning" teaching practice (p. 179) that can transform lecture-based courses into more interactive, collaborative, problem-based learning experiences (p. 202) and increase student accountability for learning (p. 220).

JiTT Promotes Effective Teaching Practices

Chickering and Gamson - Seven Principles
JiTT techniques are consistent with research on effective teaching practices, in particular Chickering and Gamson's (1987) Seven Principles of Good Teaching, a widely-accepted benchmark of "best practices" for college teaching distilled from decades of research on undergraduate education. These Seven Principles remain useful guideposts for faculty interested in improving the effectiveness of their teaching. JiTT promotes each of Chickering and Gamson's Seven Principles, listed below:

  1. Increasing student-instructor (and student-student) contact
  2. Encouraging active learning
  3. Encouraging cooperative learning
  4. Providing prompt feedback
  5. Encouraging time on task
  6. Communicating high expectations
  7. Providing a variety of teaching styles to increase the learning effectiveness for students with diverse different learning styles.

JiTT Supports Research on How People Learn

How People Learn
Supplementing Chickering and Gamson's principles for effective teaching is a growing knowledge base on student learning distilled from decades of learning sciences research. Bransford, Brown, and Cocking's How People Learn (1999, 2000) summarizes key findings from this research, which have direct implications for creating effective learning environments.

"As a result of the accumulation of new kinds of information about human learning, views of how effective learning proceeds have shifted from the benefits of diligent drill and practice to focus on students' understanding and application of knowledge." (How People Learn, p. xi)

In particular, How People Learn highlights five key factors related to improving student learning. JiTT pedagogy is especially well-suited to incorporate these factors into your teaching practices.
  1. Understanding students' pre/misconceptions
  2. Developing expert-like performance and learning
  3. Encouraging the development of transferable knowledge
  4. Emphasizing formative assessment
  5. Helping students become reflective (metacognitive) learners.

Benefits for Students and Instructors

For students - JiTT promotes time-on-task and increases preparation for class, while also building important learning skills.
For instructors - JiTT helps to make student learning gaps visible, knowledge that allows instructors to develop in-class activities targeting those gaps and thereby improve student learning efficiently and effectively.

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