Why Some Students Have Trouble with Maps and Other Spatial Representations
Toru Ishikawa, Kim A. Kastens March 2005 Journal of Geoscience Education v53 n2 p184
This survey published by the Journal of Geoscience Education has discovered several insights that cognitive and learning sciences can use in geoscience education. First, different students respond to different strategies for mastering the same task. Next, breaking down complex spatial tasks into constituent understandings or strategies is helpful to most students. And finally, diagnosing specific problems and designing different interventions for students who are prone to certain types of errors can improve the performance of students who struggle with spatial skills.