This EPA document provides detailed information about the gold mining industry in terms of the wastes associated with gold mining and processing. The report briefly characterizes the geology of gold ores and the economics of the industry. Following this discussion is a review of gold extraction and beneficiation methods; this section provides the context for descriptions of wastes and materials managed by the industry, as well as a discussion of the potential environmental effects that may result from gold mining. The report concludes with a description of the current regulatory programs that apply to the gold mining industry as implemented by EPA, Federal land management agencies, and selected states. Specific information from EPA site visits is included for the Brewer Mine, Colosseum Mine, Nerco Minerals Cripple Creek, and the Newmont Gold Company in Nevada.