Taphonomy: The Study of Preservation
What does preservation mean?
Preservation is a very broad category in paleontology. It is the study of the alteration of fossilized materials, either in large scale structure or the micro-anatomical or molecular level. Taphonomy, on the other hand, involves every process involved in the final condition of a specimen that is put on display in museum or found in a collection. This includes all the events that happen to an organism following death, its burial, and removal from the ground. Different examples of these processes include transport, surface weathering, and movement of elements by animals. Almost synonymous with taphonomy, preservation includes the disparate fields of geochemistry, microbiology, paleobotany, invertebrate and vertebrate paleontology and sedimentology.
The study of preservation has the potential to reveal the structure of ancient muscles, or the way a footprint of a dinosaur gets preserved, or the types of ancient proteins in a plant leaf. This field has been expanding in the last several decades as paleontology focuses more and more on discovering new frontiers.
What does normal preservation look like?
Ordinarily, paleontologists do not find organ impressions, skin, feathers, or any other soft tissue preserved. Fossilization usually only leaves behind the bones, and these are what science has to draw interpretations from. Fortunately, you can tell a lot from bones if you know what to look for.
- The Mastodon Page at PRI (more info) - This site shows the progress of a mastodon dig by the Paleontological Research Institute in New York State.
- Forensic Anthropology - This site discusses bone markings related to burial, fossilization and exhumation.
- The Archaeology of Yellow Jacket Pueblo: Faunal Remains (more info) - This cave fauna is a good example of the ways in which fossils are typically preserved in subterranean environments.
- Cave Taphonomy - An additional page on cave taphonomy.
- A Taphonomic Study of the Wealden Beds of southern Britain - A page on the taphonomy of famous English Cretaceous deposits.
What is exceptional preservation?
Exceptional preservation can refer to preservation of fine detail, preservation of soft-tissue, preservation of delicate structures or preservation of biomolecules or microbes.
- Digital Paleobiology of an Ordovician Lagerstatten] - A very interesting page that melds preservational aspects of Lagerstatten and three-dimensional morphology of trilobites.
- [resource 18581] - A summary page on fossil sites around the world that are characterized by incredible preservation.
- [resource 19308] - This web site is designed as a learning and teaching resource based on the Rhynie chert, a rock formation from northeast Scotland that contains superbly preserved 400 million year old terrestrial and freshwater flora and fauna.
- [resource 19363] - This website has photographs of exceptional preservation of human remains.
Teaching Resources[hidden.486294 'me teaching resources (more info)
- Roadkill as Teaching Aids in Historical Geology and Paleontology This Journal of Geoscience Education article illustrates how and why to use roadkill to teach students about paleontology. The article includes a description of the physical characteristics of fossils and roadkill; natural vs. anthropogenic agents of dismemberment and flattening; teaching aids, preparation, and methods; as well as photo examples of roadkill.
- Experimental Investigation of the Processes of Fossilization This Journal of Geoscience Education article describes a laboratory experiment that demonstrates the relative rates of decay and disarticulation of hard-parts, nonmineralized skeletal parts, and internal soft-parts of animals, plants, and fungi.
- Fossilization and Taphonomy (more info) This is a classroom exercise from the Idaho Museum of Natural History on the preservation of fossils. The exercise is designed for high school or introductory college classes. This activity is to be used in conjunction with the Digital Atlas of Idaho Geology. The website includes the necessary handouts and sample questions.