Geochemical Instrumentation and Analysis
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Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS)

John Goodge, University of Minnesota-Duluth

Interaction of an electron beam with a sample target produces a variety of emissions, including x-rays. An energy-dispersive (EDS) detector is used to separate the characteristic x-rays of different elements into an energy spectrum, and EDS system software is used to analyze the energy spectrum in order to determine the abundance of specific elements. EDS can be used to find the chemical composition of materials down to a spot size of a few microns, and to create element composition maps over a much broader raster area. Together, these capabilities provide fundamental compositional information for a wide variety of materials.

How it Works - EDS

An EDS detector, showing liquid nitrogen dewar, cold arm and detector tip that is mounted in the sample chamber. Details

EDS systems are typically integrated into either an SEM or EPMA instrument. EDS systems include a sensitive x-ray detector, a liquid nitrogen dewar for cooling, and software to collect and analyze energy spectra. The detector is mounted in the sample chamber of the main instrument at the end of a long arm, which is itself cooled by liquid nitrogen. The most common detectors are made of Si(Li) crystals that operate at low voltages to improve sensitivity, but recent advances in detector technology make availabale so-called "silicon drift detectors" that operate at higher count rates without liquid nitrogen cooling.

An EDS detector contains a crystal that absorbs the energy of incoming x-rays by ionization, yielding free electrons in the crystal that become conductive and produce an electrical charge bias. The x-ray absorption thus converts the energy of individual x-rays into electrical voltages of proportional size; the electrical pulses correspond to the characteristic x-rays of the element.




A typical EDS spectrum is portrayed as a plot of x-ray counts vs. energy (in keV). Energy peaks correspond to the various elements in the sample. Generally they are narrow and readily resolved, but many elements yield multiple peaks. For example, iron commonly shows strong Kα and Kβ peaks. Elements in low abundance will generate x-ray peaks that may not be resolvable from the background radiation.

EDS spectrum of multi-element glass (NIST K309) containing O, Al, Si, Ca, Ba and Fe (Goldstein et al., 2003). Details
EDS spectrum of biotite, containing detectable Mg, Al, Si, K, Ti and Fe (from Goodge, 2003). Details


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