# Living in a Carbon World

## Part B: Carbon Storage in Local Trees

* Adapted from Janowiak, M.: "The Carbon in Trees" activity from Future Fuels from Forests Teacher Institute. 2009, Northern Institute of Applied Science , Michigan Technological University.*

You may have a favorite tree nearby in your own backyard, outside your school or in your neighborhood. How much carbon do you think this tree stores? You can easily determine the amount of carbon stored in your favorite tree using simple materials and calculations. First, watch forest ecologist Laura Marx describe carbon storage in a Red Oak tree in a Massachusetts forest. As you watch, write down three facts about carbon storage in trees you think it is important to share with the class before you begin this activity.

**NOTE:**If there are buffering issues with this embedded video, go directly to Forest Carbon 101

## Discuss

As a class, share and discuss the three facts you wrote down about carbon storage in trees. Then, dicuss the following question:### Lab investigation: How Much Carbon is Stored in a Local Tree?

In this activity, you will determine the amount of carbon stored in a local tree. You will develop a set of skills that you can use on many species of trees, from urban trees to trees in the middle of forests. These skills include:- Identifying species names and common names of trees.
- Measuring and determining a tree's diameter.
- Calculating a tree's biomass.
- Using
**allometry and allometric cooefficients**study of relationships between growth and size of one portion an organism to the entire organism; foresters determine the allometric relationships of a species of tree by determining the diameter of several trees of one species, cutting them down, digging up the roots, drying everything out and then weighing the biomass of all the wood. to calculate mass of carbon stored in a tree. - Calculating the approximate mass of CO
_{2}taken in by your tree to build its carbon store.

**Materials and resources**

For each group:

- A regular flexible tape measure that will fit around the circumference of the tree;
**or**a diameter tape measure;**and/or**a long string, marker and push pin (**Note:**Measurements should be made in centimeters (cm) OR**converted**to centimeters) - Tree identification guide and/or tablet APP such as Leafsnap
- Calculator/pencil/paper
**NOTE:**Calculators with exponents capability are required. - A table of the Allometric Coefficients for Common North American Trees. (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 88kB Jan7 15)

- Student Data Sheet (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 70kB Sep15 15)
- (Optional) Soil testing kits and meters for testing NPK(fertilizer), soil moisture, soil pH,
- Access to a spreadsheet program such as Microsoft Excel and Apple's Numbers

- Watch this Vimeo video on how to measure trunk diameter
- Select a local tree with a circumference of at least 38 cm (15 inches), if possible. Assign your tree a number. NOTE: Each tree should have a different number.
- Identify the species and common name of the tree using a tree ID guide or a tablet APP. (
**NOTE:**You will need to choose a species of tree whose common name is on the table of Allometric Coefficients for Common North American Trees (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 91kB Jan30 15) - Take a picture and/or make drawings of the tree. You may want to include other information such as GPS location and environmental variables that might impact the growth of the tree (for example, soil type, soil moisture, soil nutrients (NPK fertilizer), amount of light the tree gets, temperature etc.)
- Is this species a
**hardwood or softwood?**in general, hardwood comes from deciduous trees and has denser wood than softwood trees, which come from conifers. The resources you used to help identify your tree species should tell you if your tree is a hardwood or softwood. If not, use this resource Hardwood or Softwood? - Determine the diameter (cm) of the tree trunk at 1.4 meters (4.5-4.6 feet) from the ground. Use one of the two following methods:
- Use a diameter tape measure to directly measure diameter. Convert to centimeters (cm) if necessary.
- Use a regular tape measure or string to measure the circumference of the tree. Convert the circumference measurement to centimeters(cm) if necessary. Divide the circumference(cm) measurement by 3.14(Pi) to calculate the diameter.

- Calculate the biomass
**(M)**for your tree. To calculate tree biomass, foresters use a standard allometric equation**M=aD**where:^{b}^{ }**M**= above ground dry weight biomass(kg) of the tree

**D**= diameter measured at 1.4 meters (4.6 feet above ground)**"a" and "b"**are species-specific allometric coefficients. Locate these two coefficients for the common name of your tree on the Allometric Coefficients for Common North American Trees (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 91kB Jan30 15) table.One team determines that the diameter of a nearby sugar maple tree has a diameter of 20 cm.1. The coefficient values for a sugar maple tree are a = 0.21 and b = 2.53

2. Using the formula

**M=aD**^{b }**M = 0.21 (22 cm ^ 2.53)**Exponent calculator link**M = 0.21 * 2490.75 = 2490. 75(kg)**The

**biomass (M)**of this sugar maple tree weighs**2490.75 (kg**).

- Calculate the approximate
**mass of carbon atoms**stored in your tree in kilograms(kg).**.**

A tree's biomass contains carbon atoms in addition to hydrogen, oxygen nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur atoms. Foresters know that approximately half of a tree's biomass is made of carbon atoms. This value is slightly different in hardwood vs softwood trees. To determine the amount of carbon in your species of tree, choose one of the following:

Multiply tree biomass (M) by 0.521 for hardwood trees

**=____(kg) of carbon stored**

Multiply tree biomass (M) by 0.498 for softwood trees

**= _____(kg) of carbon stored**The sugar maple tree is a hardwood. If the biomass (M) of a selected sugar maple tree is 2490.75 then:Biomass(M) of sugar maple 2490.75(kg) * 0.521 = 1,297.68 kg of carbon in this tree.

- Calculate the approximate amount of CO
_{2}your tree absorbed via photosynthesis to create its stored mass of carbon. NOTE: Not all CO_{2}a tree takes in gets stored as mass. Some returns to the air via respiration.Scientists have determined that

. Thus, multiplying the carbon stored (kg) in your tree by 3.67 will give you an approximate measure of CO*1 kg of carbon is equivalent to approximately 3.67 kg of CO*_{2}_{2}taken in via photosynthesis and stored in the tree.

Foresters determined that the approximate mass of carbon stored in a sugar maple tree was 1,297.00 kg.1297.00 kg of carbon x 3.67 kg = 4759.99 kg of CO

_{2}absorbed by the sugar maple tree.

## Checking In

How many kg of CO_{2}did your single local tree remove from the atmosphere and store in the tree's biomass? - (Optional) Convert the mass of carbon stored in your tree to metric tons. NOTE: Scientists normally use metric tons to quantify carbon storage. Do a simple calculation using this conversion factor (1 metric ton = 1000 kg) or use the worldwide metric calculator.
- Use a spreadsheet program to input the following variables into separate columns in a class data spreadsheet:
- tree number
- tree species
- common name
- hardwood or softwood
- biomass(kg)
- mass of carbon(kg)
- CO
_{2}absorbed(kg)

## Discuss

As a class, discuss the following:- What is the best way to display your tree data? Think in terms of the following:
- important ways to sort the data in the spreadsheet
- identifying the variables that are most important to graph
- types of graph(s) you should construct to represent the data
- After graphing is completed, analyze and discuss the graphs in terms of the following:
- interesting patterns that emerge from the data(if any)
- amount of carbon stored (sequestered)
- amount of CO
_{2}removed from the atmosphere by the trees and stored in tree biomass. - What environmental variables, if any, could influence the amount of carbon stored by trees. How?
- Think about the carbon storage data your class has collected and the skills you have gained to collect that data. How might tree carbon storage data and your new skills be useful to your community?

## Stop and Think

**1:** Carbon dioxide (CO_{2}) is a greenhouse gas that naturally warms the atmosphere as part of the greenhouse effect. Unfortunately, the amount of CO_{2} in the atmosphere has been increasing over the past hundred years. According to scientists, this increase in atmospheric CO_{2} has caused the average global temperature on Earth to increase by about 0.8° Celsius (1.4° Fahrenheit) since 1880. Two-thirds of the warming has occurred since 1975, at a rate of roughly 0.15-0.20°C per decade. (NASA)

- Explain how planting and growing more trees could
**mitigate**make less severe or serious;slow down. this warming trend in global temperature.

#### Optional Extensions

Want to learn more about trees, and the carbon cycle? Check out these resources:

**Research the latest research!**New research on the carbon cycle, climate and the environment is on-going. You can use ScienceDaily and Phys.org to research recent research on carbon storage in trees and forests by using combinations of the following tags: carbon cycle, carbon storage/sequestration,trees, forests, carbon sink. Here is an example: Munching bugs thwart eager trees, reducing the carbon sink- Read more about Tree Allometry
- Explore San Francisco's UrbanForest Map project to measure and map tree carbon in urban trees. Do you have a similar program in your community?
- Read Over three million trees killed by the 2011 Texas drought.
- Use the TreeBenefits Calculator to find out how your tree benefits your community. Putting in your tree name and your zipcode will take you to the tree benefits page. In addition to other tree benefits, you can click the CO
_{2}tab in the menu to find out the benefits of your tree sequestering CO_{2}.