Lab 5: Exploring Factors that Impact Coral HealthThe lab activity described here was created by Erin Bardar of TERC for the EarthLabs project.
Activity Summary and Learning Objectives
In the previous lab, students explored the characteristics of the ocean environment in which coral reefs thrive. Unfortunately,there are a number of factors, both natural and anthropogenic (resulting from human activities), that can alter the ocean environment and threaten the health of coral reef ecosystems. In this activity, students will examine the three main factors that disrupt corals.
After completing this investigation, students will be able to:
- use a Geographic Information System (GIS) tool to evaluate threats on coral reefs;
- explain how certain fishing practices, pollution, and climate change can damage coral ecosystems; and
- describe the predicted consequences for coral reefs.
Context for use
This activity follows Lab 4: Finding Coral's Ideal Environment, in which students explore the range of ocean characteristics preferred by coral reefs. Now that students are familiar with the environmental conditions in which corals survive and thrive, they are ready to explore the factors most likely to disrupt these conditions and threaten coral health and sustainability. It is recommended that students work in pairs or small groups for all three parts of this lab. The entire investigation should take approximately 2-3 class periods. Part A and the first step of Part B will take approximately 1-1.5 class periods. The readings and questions in Part B can be assigned for homework. Part C will take approximately 1 class period.
Activity Overview and Teaching Materials
In Part B, students examine different layers of the "Reefs at Risk" map of the Caribbean to separate the effects different human activities have on coral reefs. They also read a series of short articles about the impacts watersheds, exploitive fishing, and coastal development have on coral reefs.
In Part C, students perform simple hands-on experiments designed to help them better understand the effects of ocean acidification on coral reefs and read the NOAA article What is Ocean Acidification?. The following materials are needed for each group of 3-5 students:
- 300 mL bromothymol blue pH indicator solution (available from any scientific supplier)
- 500 mL beaker
- drinking straw
- Activity Sheet (PDF (Acrobat (PDF) 35kB Aug1 08) and Word (Microsoft Word 30kB Aug1 08))
- Suggested Answers (Acrobat (PDF) 56kB Aug1 08)
Teaching notes and tips
If you are concerned about student safety, the experiment with bromothymol blue in Part C can be performed as a teacher demonstration.
You can assess student understanding of topics addressed in this Investigation by grading their responses to the Stop and Think questions.
State and National Science Teaching Standards
California Science Teaching Standards met by this activityDeveloper will correlate activity to standards in these documents:
Earth science content standards - Grades 9 to 12
Biology content standards (see Ecology) - Grades 9 to 12
Investigation and Experimentation Standards - Grades 9 to 12
Developer will correlate activity to standards in this document:PDF of Science and technology standards Earth science standards begin on page 112
Developer will correlate activity to standards in this document:Learning standards for science
Developer will correlate activity to standards in this document:North Carolina Standard Course of Study
Developer will correlate activity to standards listed at this site:National Science Education Standards (SRI)
- Visit these sites for additional background information on ReefGIS maps and GIS tools in general.
- If you are interested in learning more about the impact of increased CO2 content in the oceans, read the NOAA article Impacts of Anthropogenic CO2 on Ocean Chemistry and Biology, which highlights the conclusions from a workshop of 50 international experts meeting to discuss how the release of huge amounts of carbon dioxide will affect the chemistry and biology of the oceans.