Lab 4:Carbon-Changes in the LandThe lab activity described here was developed by Candace Dunlap of TERC for the EarthLabs project.
Use the button at the right to navigate to the student activity pages for this lab. To open the student pages in a new tab or window, right-click (control-click on a Mac) the "Open the Student Activity" button and choose "Open Link in New Window" or "Open Link in New Tab."
Investigation Summary and Learning Objectives
Students listen to a researcher describe the changes that warming is bringing to the Boreal Forest, which extends across the northern regions of North America, Europe, and Asia south of the tundra. The warmer, drier weather leads to more intensive fires in this region of conifers. As the faster-growing deciduous trees replace the conifers, the most significant changes may be ones that are not even visible.
After completing this investigation, students will be able to:
- Describe how forests can function as a carbon sink or as a carbon source and how they might change from one to another.
- Explain how wildfires, deforestation and drought might change a forest from a carbon sink to a carbon source.
- Identify positive or negative feedbacks in a complex forest carbon cycle.
For more information about the TOPIC, read the section titled Background Information under Additional Resources below
In Part A: Students investigate deforestation in the Amazon Rainforest and its affect on the Amazon to remain a strong carbon sink. Next, they learn how deforestation, combustion and decomposition caused by slash and burn farming methods all work together to increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. A solution to mitigate problems caused by slash and burn farming are explored in a mini case study on farming methods using method using Inga Trees.
In Part B: Students explore the effects of wildfires on the complex carbon cycle of the Northern Boreal Forests and its relationship to climate change.
Printable MaterialsTo download one of the PDF or Word files below, right-click (control-click on a Mac) the link and choose "Save File As" or "Save Link As."
- Stop and Think Questions - Lab 4 Lab 4A (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 24kB Mar5 13)
- 'Suggested Answers' to Stop and Think Questions Lab 4A with answers (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 132kB Feb11 14)
Teaching Notes and Tips
In Part A:
In Part B:
You only want to view the first section of the AMNH movie "The Ecology of Climate Change" Reading the accompanying essay at the AMNH site is critical to being able to do this assessment. For AP Environmental students, you might prefer to have your students read several articles on the same subject from Nasa's Earth Observatory. They are linked below.
Migration of the Boreal Forest
A Forest on the Threshold
The Boreas-Atmospheric project
Student notebooks are optional. Here are just a few suggestions for what to include in student notebooks for Lab 3:
Note: You may want to separate actual data collection and analysis into a Lab Notebook.
- Drawings and notes from videos, animations and discussions
- Drawings of models and any revisions
- Notes, drawings and/or story from the "Up in Smoke" activity.
- Feedback drawing from the Lab4B "Case study of Changes in the Boreal Forest" activity.
Assessment:There are several options for assessments of students understanding of material produced in this Lab. Teachers can choose from the following list or create their own assessments.
- Assess student understanding of topics addressed in this investigation by grading their responses to the Stop and Think questions.
- Teachers may want to grade the Boreal Forest activity in Lab 4B .
- Written Test for Lab 4 (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 234kB Jan21 14) (Answer Key (Microsoft Word 2007 (.docx) 252kB Jan21 14))
National Science Teaching Standards
Lab 4 supports the following Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS):
Science and Engineering Practices
3. Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
4. Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Disciplinary Core Ideas
ESS3.D Global Climate Change
ESS3.A Natural Resources
LS2.A Ecosystem Functioning Dynamics and Resilience
2. Cause and Effect
3. Scale, Proportion and Quantity7. Stability and Change
Background InformationOther resources include: The Amazon
Deforestation in the Amazon
Seeing Leaves in a New Light
There are many other articles on the NASA Earth Observatory website that relate to carbon and forests.
Are there fires near you today? Use the Climate Central Interactive Wildfire Map in Real Time and the Fire Forecast to see if there is a fire near you today.