**Reference Materials**

This page provides an inventory of organizations and written resources (books, articles and book chapters) on Numeracy, Quantitative Reasoning (QR) and Statistical Literacy. It is broken down into several sections including:

- Journals and Internet Resources on Numeracy, Quantitative Reasoning and Statistical Literacy (Writings and Pedagogy Websites)
- Resources on Numeracy, Quantitative Reasoning and Statistical Literacy (General)
- Textbooks and Activity Books on Numeracy, Quantitative Reasoning and Statistical Literacy
- Resources on QR and Math Anxiety and Inequality

- Resources on QR, Cognition and the Brain
- Resources on Children's Education, Development and Numeracy

- Resources on Ethnomathematics and Multicultural Mathematics
- Resources for Integrating Quantitative Reasoning and Mathematics in Writing, Reading and Communication
- Resources on Representations of Quantitative Data
- Resources on Health Numeracy
- Resources for Integrating Quantitative Reasoning Across the Disciplines and Throughout the Curriculum
- Resources on Quantitative Reasoning Assessment

- Resources on National Initiatives to Promote Numeracy

**Journals and Internet Resources on Numeracy, Quantitative Reasoning and Statistical Literacy (Writings and Pedagogy Websites)**

**Cockcroft Report**

A Report of the Committee of Inquiry into the Teaching of Mathematics in Schools under the Chairmanship of Dr W. H. Cockcroft. This report includes one of the first attempts to define the term

numeracy(or 'numerate').

**The Crowther Report**

This 1959 report coins the term

numerate.

A series of math blogs by Keith Devlin.

**Journal of Statistics Education**

This is an international journal on the teaching and learning of statistics.

A blog by Laura Laing, author of

Math for GrownupsandMath for Writers.

A UK-based network whose primary aim "is to support teaching in higher education to improve student learning in our community. We do this by offering: friendly and professional staff to support colleagues from across the UK; gathering and disseminating information and resources; and funding specific activities."

**Mathematics and Writing**

A collection of resources for merging together mathematics and writing.

**New York Times Graphics Department Blog**

A "blog of data sketches from the New York Times graphics department."

**More Numerate: Numbers & Evidence for News Writers**

This project, supported by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, features a "module to improve quantitative awareness, critical analysis, and evidence-based perspectives among journalism students and journalism instructors." At the web site, there is a numeracy quiz to test your quantitative awareness.

This is the online, open-access journal of the National Numeracy Network.

**Statlib**

Data, software and news from the statistics community.

**Statistical Literacy**

This is a web site created by Milo Schield that has a wealth of information and resources for teaching statistical literacy, including suggested readings (books and articles).

See also a collection of articles compiled by Milo Schield.

A "magazine for students of statistics" (no longer in publication).

A series of math blogs by Steven Strogatz that often touch on QL-related topics.

**Teaching QL with the News**

A website to teach QL with the news based on material written by Bernard L. Madison, Stuart Boersma, Caren L. Diefenderfer, and Shannon W. Dingman.

**Teaching Quantitative Skills in the GeoSciences**

This is a collection of resources for undergraduate students and faculty interested in understanding and/or teaching quantitative skills in the geosciences. It includes modules that focus on various pedagogical techniques, teaching activities, tools and data sets, etc.

**Teaching with Data**

A website to teach undergraduate geoscience classes using data.

**Teaching Statistics**

A journal of the Royal Statistical Society Centre for Statistical Education whose aim is "to promote the improvement of statistical education, training and understanding at all ages."

**Understanding Uncertainty**

Understanding Uncertainty is a website that includes articles, animations, and a blog designed to "make sense of chance, risk, luck, uncertainty and probability."

**Resources on Numeracy, Quantitative Reasoning and Statistical Literacy (General)**

**Books and Reports**

Bennett, Jeffrey. 2012. *Math for Life: Crucial Ideas You Didn't Learn in School*. Greenwood, CO: Roberts and Company Publishers.

Ben-Zvi, Dani and Joan Garfield. 2004. *The Challenge of Developing Statistical Literacy, Reasoning and Thinking*. New York: Springer.

Best, Joel. 2001. *Damned* *Lies and Statistics: Untangling Numbers from Media, Politicians and Activists*. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

______. 2004*.* More Damned Lies and Statistics: How Numbers Confuse Public Issues. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

______. 2008. Stat-Spotting: A Field Guide to Identifying Dubious Data. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Blastland, Michael. 2007. *The Tiger that Isn't.* London, UK: Profile Books.

Blastland, Michael, and Andrew Dilmot. 2010. *The Numbers Game: The Commonsense Guide to Understanding Numbers in the News, in Politics and in Life*. NY, NY: Gotham.

Blastland, Michael, and David Spiegelhalter. 2013. *The Norm Chronicles: Stories about Numbers and Danger*. London: Profile Books, Ltd.

Bracey, Gerald W. 2006. *Reading Educational Research: How to Avoid Getting Statistically Snookered*. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Bram, Uri. 2012. *Thinking Statistically*. CreateSpace Publishers.

Brignell, John Ernest. 2000. *Sorry, Wrong Number!: The Abuse of Measurement*. Brignell Associates.

Bynner, John and Samantha Parsons. 1997. *Does Numeracy Matter? Evidence from the National Child Development Study on the Impact of Poor Numeracy in Adult Life*. Basic Skills Agency, Commonwealth House.

Cohen, Patricia Cline. 1999. *A Calculating People: The Spread of Numeracy in Early America.* NY: Routledge.

Dawes, Robyn. 2001. *Everyday Irrationality: How Pseudo-Scientists, Lunatics, and the Rest of Us Systematically Fail to Think Rationally*. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Dawkins, Richard. 1998. *Unweaving the Rainbow: Science, Delusion and the Appetite for Wonder*. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Devlin, Keith. 2000. *The Language of Mathematics: Making the Invisible Visible*. New York: Holt Paperbacks.

Frenkel, Edward. 2013. *Love and Math: The Heart of Hidden Reality* New York: Basic Books.

Fung, Kaiser. 2010. *Numbers Rule Your World: The Hidden Influence of Probabilities and Statistics on Everything you Do.* New York: McGraw-Hill.

______. 2013. *Numbersense: How to Use Big Data to Your Advantage*. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Gal, Iddo. Editor. 2010. *Adult Numeracy Development: Theory, Research, Practice*. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Ganen, Joseph. 2007. *The Two-Headed Quarter: How to See Through Deceptive Numbers and Save Money on Everything You Buy*. Baltimore, MD: Chartley Publishing, LLC.

Hobart, Michael E. and Zachary S. Schiffman. 2000. *Information Ages: Literacy, Numeracy and the Computer Revolution.* Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Hofstadter, Douglas. 1985. *Metamagical Themas: Questing for the Essence of Mind and Pattern*. New York: Basic Books.

Huff, Darrell and Irving Geis. 1982. *How to Lie With Statistics.* New York: WW Norton & Company.

Klass, Gary. 2008. *Just Plain Data Analysis*. Lanham, MD: Roman and Littlefield Publishers.

Koomey, Jonathan G. 2003. *Turning Numbers into Knowledge: Mastering the Art of Problem Solving.* Burlingame, CA: Analytics Press.

Kutner, Mark, Elizabeth Greenberg, Ying Jin, Bridget Boyle, Yung-chen Hsu, Eric Dunleavy, and Sheida White. 2007. *Literacy in Everyday Life: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy*. Institute of Education Sciences National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: United States Department of Education.

Lave, Jean. 1988. *Cognition in Practice: Mind, Mathematics and Culture in Everyday Life.* New York: Cambridge University Press.

Madison, Bernard and Lynn Arthur Steen, Editors. 2003. *Quantitative Literacy: Why Numeracy Matters for Schools and Colleges.* Princeton, NJ: National Council on Education and the Disciplines.

______. 2008. *Calculation vs. Context: Quantitative Li**teracy and Its Implications for Teacher Education.* Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America.

Mahajan, Sanjoy. 2010. *Street-Fighting Mathematics: The Art of Educated Guessing and Opportunistic Problem Solving*. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Mathematical Association of America. 1998. *Quantitative Reasoning for College Graduates: A Complement to the Standards*. Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America.

Mlodinow, Leonard. 2009. *The Drunkard's Walk: How Randomness Rules our Lives*. New York: Vintage.

Murname, Richard J. and John B. Willett. 2010. *Methods Matter: Improving Causal Inference in Educational and Social Science Research*. New York: Oxford University Press.

Niederman, Derrick and David Boyum. 2003. *What the Numbers Say: A Field Guide to Mastering Our Numerical World*. New York: Crown Business.

Paulos, John Allen. 2001. *Innumeracy: Mathematical Illiteracy and Its Consequences*. New York: Hill and Wang.

______. 1992. *Beyond Numeracy: Ruminations of a Numbers Man*. New York: Vintage.

______. 1995. *A Mathematician Reads the Newspaper*. New York: Basic Books.

Pearse, Margie. 2011. *Teaching Numeracy: 9 Critical Habits to Ignite Mathematical Thinking*. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Peck, Roxy, George Casella, George W. Cobb, Roger Hoerl, and Deborah Nolan. 2005. *Statistics: A Guide to the Unknown.* Pacific Grove, CA: Duxbury Press.

Seife, Charles. 2010. *Proofiness: The Dark Arts of Mathematical Deception*. New York: Penguin Books.

Silver, Nate. 2012. *The Signal and the Noise: Why So Many Predictions Fail but Some Don't.* Penguin Press.

Steen, Lynn Arthur. 1997. *Why Numbers Count: Quantitative Literacy for Tomorrow's America*. New York: The College Board.

______. Editor. 2001. *Mathematics and Democracy: The Case for Quantitative Literacy*. Princeton, NJ: National Council on Education and the Disciplines.

______. 2004. *Achieving Quantitative Literacy: An Urgent Challenge for Higher Education*. Washington, DC: The Mathematical Association of America.

Tahan, Malba. 1993. *The Man Who Counted: A Collection of Mathematical Adventures*. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.

Taleb, Nassim Nicholas. 2008. *Fooled by Randomness: The Hidden Role of Chance in Life and in the Markets*. NY: Random House.

______. 2007. *The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable*. NY: Random House.

Tritelli, David, Editor. 2004. *Quantitative Literacy* (special edition). *Peer Review* 6(4).

Vickers, Andrew J. 2009. *What is a p-value Anyway? 34 Stories to Help You Actually Understand Statistics*. Pearson.

Watts, Duncan J. 2011. *Everything is Obvious: *Once You Know the A*nswer. New York: Crown Business.

Weisberg, Hebert I. 2010. *Bias and Causation: Models and Judgment for Valid Comparisons.* Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Wheelan, Charles. 2013. *Naked Statistics: Stripping the Dread from Data*. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.

**Articles and Book Chapters**

Barwell, Richard. 2004. "What is Numeracy?" *For the Learning of Mathematics* 24(1): 20-22.

Briggs, William L. 2006. "What Mathematics Should All College Students Know?" In *Current Practices in Quantitative Literacy*, edited by Rick Gillman. Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America. Pp. 17-19.

Bulcock, J.W. and Mona J. Beebe. 1981. "Some Common Causes of Literacy and Numeracy." *Canadian Journal of Education* 6(3): 19-44.

Burkhardt, Hugh. 2008. "Quantitative Literacy for All: How Can We Make it Happen." In *Calculation vs. Context: Quantitative Literacy and Its Implications for Teacher Education*, edited by Bernard L. Madison and Lynn Arthur Steen. Mathematical Association of America. Pp. 137-162.

Carnevale, Anthony P., and Donna M. Desrochers." 2003. "The Democratization of Mathematics." In *Quantitative Literacy: Why Numeracy Matters for Schools and Colleges*, edited by Bernard L. Madison and Lynn Arthur Steen. Princeton, NJ: National Council on Education and the Disciplines. Pp. 21-31.

Caulfield, Susan L. and Caroline Hodges Persell. 2006. "Teaching Social Science Reasoning and Quantitative Literacy: The Role of Collaborative Groups." Teaching Sociology 34(1): 39-53.

Charette, Michael F. and Ronald Meng. 1998. "The Determinants of Literacy and Numeracy, and the Effect of Literacy and Numeracy on Labor Market Outcomes." *The Canadian Journal of Economics* 31(3): 495-517.

Clarke, Aileen and Janet Toye. 1981. "Jobs and Numeracy in the Classroom." *Mathematics in School* 10(1): 10-11.

Cohen, Patricia Cline. 2003. "Democracy and the Numerate Citizen: Quantitative Literacy in Historical Perspective." In *Quantitative Literacy: Why Numeracy Matters for Schools and Colleges*, edited by Bernard L. Madison and Lynn Arthur Steen. Princeton, NJ: National Council on Education and the Disciplines. Pp. 7-20.

Cuban, Larry. 2001. "Encouraging Progressive Pedagogy." Pp. 87-91 in *Mathematics and Democracy: the Case for Quantitative Literacy*, edited by Lynn Arthur Steen. Princeton, NJ: National Council on Education and the Disciplines.

Diefenderfer, Caren. 2012. "The Joy of Quantitative Reasoning." *Numeracy* 5(1): Article 1.

Dingman, Shannon W. and Bernard L. Madison. 2010. "Quantitative Reasoning in the Contemporary World, 1: The Course and Its Challenges." *Numeracy* 3(2): Article 4.

Ehrenberg, A.S.C. 1977. "Rudiments of Numeracy." *Journal of the Royal Statistical Society* 140(3): 277-297.

Ehrenberg, A.S.C. 1981. "The Problem of Numeracy." *The American Statistician* 35(2): 67-71.

Gal, Iddo. 2002. "Adults' Statistical Literacy: Meanings, Components, Responsibilities." *International Statistical Review* 70(1): 1-25.

Ganter, Susan L. 2006. "Issues, Politics and Activities in the Movement for Quantitative Literacy."' In *Current Practices in Quantitative Literacy*, edited by Rick Gillman. Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America. Pp. 11-15.

Garfield, Joan and Dani Ben-Zvi. 2010. *Developing Students' Statistical Reasoning: Connecting Research and Teaching Practice*. Springer.

Grawe, Nathan. 2012. "Achieving a Quantitatively Literacy Citizenship: Resources and Community to Support National Change." *Liberal Education* 98 (2).

Hatano, Giyoo. 1996. "A Conception of Knowledge Acquisition and its Implications for Mathematics Education." Pp. 197-217 in *Theories of Mathematical Learning,* edited by Leslie P. Steffe and Pearla Nesher. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Henrich, Allison and Kristi Lee. 2011. "Reducing Math Anxiety: Findings from Incorporating Service Learning into a Quantitative Reasoning Course at Seattle University." *Numeracy* 4(2): Article 9.

Hillyard, Cinnamon. 2007. "Using Popular Culture to Teach Quantitative Reasoning." *PRIMUS* 17(1): 36-43.

Jablonka, Eva. 2003. "Mathematical Literacy." Chapter 3 in *Second International Handbook of Mathematics Education,* edited by A.J. Bishop, M.A. Clements, C. Keitel, J. Kilpatrick, and F.K.S. Leung. Dordrecht: Kluwer. Pp. 74-102.

Joram, Elana, Lauren B. Resnick, and Anthony J. Gabriele. 1995. "Numeracy as Cultural Practice: An Examination of Numbers in Magazines for Children, Teenagers and Adults." *Journal for Research in Mathematics Education* 26(4): 346-361.

Koedinger, Kenneth R. and Mitchell J. Nathan. 2004. "The Real Story Behind Story Problems: Effects of Representations on Quantitative Reasoning." *Journal of the Learning Sciences* 13(2): 129-164.

Kramarski, Bracha and Zemira R. Mevarech. 2003. "Enhancing Mathematical Reasoning in the Classroom: The Effects of Cooperative Learning and Metacognitive *Training.*" *Educational Research Journal* 40(1): 281-310.

Linder, Andrew M. 2012. "Teaching Quantitative Literacy through a Regression Analysis of Exam Performance." *Teaching Sociology* 40(1): 50-59.

Lomax, Richard G. 2004. "Whither the Future of Quantitative Literacy Research?" *Reading Research Quarterly* 39(1): 107-112.

Lowber, Chris and Teruni Lamberg. N.d. "Mathematical Learning: Number Sense." *Education Encyclopedia* StateUniversity.com

Maclellan, Effie. 2012. "Number Sense: The Underpinning Understanding for Early Quantitative Literacy." *Numeracy* 5(2): Article 3.

Madison, Bernard L. 2003. ''The Many Faces of Quantitative Literacy.'' Pp. 3-6 in *Quantitative Literacy: Why Numeracy Matters for Schools and Colleges*, edited by Bernard L. Madison and Lynn Arthur Steen. Princeton, NJ: National Council on Education and the Disciplines.

______. 2004. "To Build a Better Mathematics Course*.*"*All Things Academic* 5(4). 9 pgs.

______. 2004. "Two Mathematics: Ever the Twain Shall Meet." *Peer Review* 6(4). 9-12.

______. 2006. Presentation to the Northeast Consortium on Quantitative Literacy, Annual Meeting, April 29, 2006. As cited in Shavelson 2008.

Madison, Bernard L. and Shannon W. Dingman. 2010. "Quantitative Reasoning in the Contemporary World, 2: Focus Questions for the Numeracy Community." *Numeracy* 3(2): Article 5.

McIntosh, Alistair, Barbara J. Reys, and Robert E. Reys. 1992. ''A Proposed Framework for Examining Basic Number Sense.'' *For the Learning of Mathematics* 12(3): 2-8, 44.

Melhuish, Edward C., Mai B. Phan, Kathy Sylva, Pam Sammons, Iram Siraj-Blatchford, and Brenda Taggart. 2008. "Effects of the Home Learning Environment and Preschool Center Experience upon Literacy and Numeracy Development in Early Primary School." J*ournal of Social Issues* 64(1): 95-114.

Mosenthal, Peter B. and Irwin S. Kirsch. 1993. "Profiling Students' Quantitative Literacy Abilities: An Approach with Precision." *Journal of Reading* 36(8): 668-674.

Peters, Ellen, Daniel Västfjäll, Paul Slovic, C.K. Mertz, Ketti Mazzocco, and Stephan Dickert. 2006. "Numeracy and Decision Making." *Psychological Science* 17(5): 407:413.

Pozo, Susan, and Charles A. Stull. 2006. "Requiring a Math Skills Unit: Results of a Randomized Experiment." *American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings* 96(2): 437-441.

Rivera-Batiz, Francisco L. 1992. "Quantitative Literacy and the Likelihood of Employment among Young Adults in the United States." *Journal of Human Resources* 27(2): 313-328.

Robinson, Peter. 1998. "Literacy, Numeracy and Economic Performance." *New Political Economy* 3(1): 143-149.

Rossman, Allan J. 1997. "Quantitative Reasoning: Argument with Data." *College Teaching* 45(2): 52-54.

Schuhmann, Peter W., KimMarie McGoldrick and Robert T. Burrus. 2005. "Student Quantitative Literacy: Importance, Measurement, and Correlation with Economic Literacy." *The American Economist* 49(1): 49-65.

Sevilla, Alicia and Kay Somers. 2006. "Quantitative Reasoning and Informed Citizenship: A Relevant Hands-on Course." In *Current Practices in Quantitative Literacy*, edited by Rick Gillman. Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America. Pp. 125-132.

Smith, Fay, Frank Hardman, and Steve Higgins. 2006. "The Impact of Interactive White Boards on Teacher-Pupil Interaction in the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies." *British Educational Research Journal* 32(3): 443-457.

Snyder, Benson R. 1990. "Literacy and Numeracy: Two Ways of Knowing." *Daedalus* 199(2): 233-256.

Sowey, Eric R. 2003. "The Getting of Wisdom: Educating Statisticians to Enhance Their Clients' Numeracy." *The American Statistician* 57(2); 89-93.

Stavy, Ruth and Rueven Babai. 2008. "Complexity of Shapes and Quantitative Reasoning in Geometry." *Mind, Brain and Education* 2(4): 170-176.

Steen, Lynn Arthur. 1990. "Numeracy." *Daedalus* 119(2): 211-231.

______. 1999. "Numeracy: The New Literacy for a Data-Drenched Society." *ASCD* 57(2): 8-13.

______. 2002. "Why Numeracy Matters for Schools and Colleges." *Focus* 22(2): 8-9.

______. 2004. "Everything I Needed to Know about Averages I Learned in College.'' *Peer Review* 6(4): 4-8.

______. 2008. "Reflections on Wingspread Workshop." In *Calculation vs. Context: Quantitative Literacy and Its Implications for Teacher Education*, edited by Bernard L. Madison and Lynn Arthur Steen. Mathematical Association of America. Pp. 11-23.

Sweet, Stephen and Kerry Strand. 2006. "Introduction: Cultivating Quantitative Literacy: The Role of Sociology." *Teaching Sociology* 34(1): 1-4.

Thelk, Amy D. and Emily R. Hoole. 2006. "What are you Thinking? Postsecondary Student Think-Alouds of Scientific and Quantitative Reasoning." *Journal of General Education* 55(1): 17-39.

Thompson, Patrick W. 1993. "Quantitative Reasoning, Complexity, and Additive Structures." *Educational Studies in Mathematics* 25(3): 165-208.

Tout, Dave, and Mary Jane Schmitt. 2002. "The Inclusion of Numeracy in Adult Basic Education." Chapter 3 in Review of Adult Learning and Literacy (3). *National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy*.

Twigg, Carol A. 2005. "Math Lectures: An Oxymoron?" The National Center for Academic Transformation.

Wallman, Katherine K. 1993. "Enhancing Statistical Literacy: Enriching our Society." *Journal of the American Statistical Association* 88(421): 1-8.

Watson, Jane and Rosemary Callingham. 2003. "Statistical Literacy: A Complex Hierarchical Construct." *Statistics Education Research Journal* 2(2): 3-46.

*For the Learning of Mathematics*22(3): 23-28.

Wiest, Lynda R., Heidi J. Higgins, and Janet Hart Frost. 2007. "Quantitative Literacy for Social Justice." *Equity & Excellence in Education* 40: 47-55.

Zevenbergen, Robyn. 2004. "Technologizing Numeracy: Intergenerational Differences in Working Mathematically in New Times." *Educational Studies in Mathematics* 56(1): 97-117.

**Textbooks and Activity Books on Numeracy, Quantitative Literacy and Quantitative Reasoning (General)**

*Literacy and Mathematics: A Contemporary Approach to Quantitative Literacy*. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.

Anderson, Janet and Todd Swanson. 2005. *Understanding our Quantitative World*. Washington, DC: The Mathematical Association of America.

Aufmann, Robert, N., Joanne Lockwood, and Richard D. Nation. 2007. *Mathematical Thinking and Quantitative Reasoning*. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co.

Bennett, Jeffrey O. and William L. Briggs. 2010. *Using and Understanding Mathematics: A Quantitative Reasoning Approach, ^{5th} edition*. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Bolker, Ethan D. and Maura Mast. 2012. *Common Sense Mathematics*. See also *Common Sense Mathematics Instructor's Manual*.

Burger, Edward B. and Michael Starbird. 2005. *The Heart of Mathematics: An Invitation to Effective Thinking*. Emeryville, CA: Key College Publishing.

COMAP. 2011. *For All Practical Purpose: Mathematical Literacy in Today's World, 9 ^{th} edition*. New York: W.H. Freeman.

Crauder, Bruce C., Benny Evans, and Jerry A. Johnson. 2011. *Quantitative Literacy: Thinking Between the Lines*. NY: Worth.

Fusaro, B.A. and P.C. Kenschaft. 2003. *Environmental Mathematics in the Classroom*. Washington, DC: The Mathematical Association of America.

Jaisingh, Lloyd R. 2005. *Statistics for the Utterly Confused*. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Madison, Bernard L., Stuart Boersma, Caren L. Diefenderfer, and Shannon W. Dingman. 2012. *Case Studies for Quantitative Reasoning: A Casebook of Media Articles, 3 ^{nd} edition*. Boston, MA: Pearson.

Nolan, Deborah and Terry P. Speed. 2000. Stat Labs: Mathematical Statistics Through Applications. New York: Springer.

Richman, Fred, Carol L. Walker, Robert J. Wisner, and James W. Brewer. 2002. *Mathematics for Liberal Arts*. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing Co.

Schield, Milo. 2009. *Statistical Literacy: Seeing the Story Behind the Statistics*. Instant Publisher.

Sevilla, Alicia and Kay Somers. 2012. *Quantitative Reasoning: Tools for Today's Informed Citizen, 2nd edition*. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Sons, Linda R., Peter J. Nicholls, and Joseph B. Stephen. 2008. *Mathematical Thinking and Quantitative Reasoning*. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing Company.

Utts, Jessica. 2004. *Seeing through Statistics*. Pacific Grove, CA: Duxbury Press.

Whimbey, Arthur and Jack Lochhead. 1985. *Beyond Problem Solving and Comprehension: An Exploration of Quantitative Reasoning.* New York: Routledge.

Williams, Frederick and Peter R. Monge. 2000. *Reasoning With Statistics: How to Read Quantitative Research*. Wadsworth.

Winkler, Othmar W. 2009. *Interpreting Economic and Social Data: A Foundation of Descriptive Statistics*. New York: Springer.

**Resources on QR and Math Anxiety and Inequality**

**Books**

Arem, Cynthia A. 2009. *Conquering Math Anxiety*. Cengage Learning.

Burns, Marilyn. 1998. *Math: Facing an American Phobia.* Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions.

Clawson, Calvin C. 1991. *Conquering Math Phobia: A Painless Primer*. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Immergut, Britta, and and Jean Burr Smith. 2005. *Arithmetic and Algebra Again: Leaving Math Anxiety Behind Forever.* New York: McGraw-Hill.

Tobias, Sheila. 1995. *Overcoming Math Anxiety*. New York: W. W. Norton & Co.

**Articles**

Ashcraft, Mark H. 2002. "Math Anxiety: Personal, Educational, and Cognitive Consequences." *Current Directions in Psychological Science* 11(5): 181-185.

Ashcraft, Mark H. and Elizabeth P. Kirk. 2001. "The Relationships among Working Memory, Math Anxiety, and Performance." *Journal of Experimental Psychology* 130(2): 224-237.

Ashcraft, Mark H. and Jeremy A. Krause. 2007. "Working Memory, Math Performance, and Math Anxiety." *Psychonomic Bulletin & Review* 14(2): 243-248.

Beilock, Sian L., Elizabeth A. Gunderson, Gerardo Ramirez, and Susan C. Levine. 2010. "Females Teachers' Math Anxiety Affects Girls' Math Achievement." *Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America* 107(5): 1860-1863.

Betz, Nancy E. 1978. "Prevalence, Distribution, and Correlates of Math Anxiety in College Students." *Journal of Counseling Psychology* 25(5): 441-448.

Harms, William 2011. "Brain Study Reveals how Successful Students Overcome Math Anxiety." *UChicago News*.

Johns, Michael, Toni Schmader, and Andy Martens. 2005. "Knowing is Half the Battle: Teaching Stereotype Threat as a Means of Improving Women's Math Performance." *Psychological Science* 16(3): 175-179.

Nguyen, Hannah-Hanh D. and Ann Marie Ryan. 2008. "Does Stereotype Threat affect Test Performance of Minorities and Women? A Meta-Analysis of Experimental Evidence." *Journal of Applied Psychology* 93(6): 1314-1334.

Perry, Andrew B. 2004. "Decreasing Math Anxiety in College Students." *College Student Journal* 38(2): 321-324.

Schmader, Toni, Michael Johns, and Chad Forbes. 2008. "An Integrated Process Model of Stereotype Threat Effects on Performance." *Psychological Review* 115(2): 336-358.

Steele, Claude. 1991. "Thin Ice: Stereotype Threat and Black College Students." *The Atlantic* (August).

Steele, Claude M. and Joshua Aronson. 1995. "Stereotype Threat and the Intellectual Test Performance of African-Americans." *Journal of Personality and Social Psychology* 69(5): 797-811.

Swayne, Matthew. 2014. "Math Anxiety Makes GM Food Data Harder to Decipher." *Futurity.org*

Tobias, Sheila. 1991. "Math Mental Health: Going Beyond Math Anxiety." *College Teaching* 39(3): 91-93.

Tomasetto, Carlo, Francesca Romana Alparone, and Mara Cadinu. 2011. "Girls' Math Performance Under Stereotype Threat: The Moderating Role of Mothers' Gender Stereotypes." *Developmental Psychology* 47(4): 943-949.

Wigfield, Allan and Judith L. Meece. 1988. "Math Anxiety in Elementary and Secondary School Students." *Journal of Educational Psychology* 80(2): 210-216.

**Resources on QR, Cognition and the Brain**

**Books**

*The Number Sense: How the Mind Creates Mathematics*. Revised and Expanded Edition. New York: Oxford University Press.

Devlin, Keith. 2000. *The Math Gene: How Mathematical Thinking Evolved and Why Numbers are Like Gossip*. New York: Basic Books.

Gardner, Daniel. 2009. *The Science of Fear: How the Culture of Fear Manipulates your Brain*. New York: Plume.

Gilovich, Thomas. 1993. *How We Know What Isn't So: The Fallibility of Human Reason in Everyday Life*. NY: The Free Press.

Gigerenzer, Gerd. 2002. *Calculated Risks: How to Know When Numbers Deceive You*. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Greenwood, Bruce. 2013. "Lottery Logic." electia.co.uk

Kahneman, Daniel. 2011. *Thinking, Fast and Slow*. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Pinker, Steven. 1997. *How the Mind Works*. New York: Norton.

Reif, Frederick. 2008. *Applying Cognitive Science to Education: Thinking and Learning in Scientific and Other Complex Domains.* Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

**Articles**

Cosmides, Leda, and John Tooby. 1996. "Are Humans Good Intuitive Statisticians after all? Rethinking some Conclusions from the Literature on Judgment under Uncertainty." *Cognition* 58: 1-73.

Dehaene, Stanislas, Elizabeth Spelke, Philippe Pinel, R. Stanescu, and S. Tsivkin. 1999. "Sources of Mathematical Thinking: Behavioral and Brain-Imaging Evidence." *Science* 284: 970-74.

Iuculano, Teresa, Joey Tang, Charles W.B. Hall, and Brian Butterworth. 2008. "Core Information Processing Deficits in Developmental Dyscalculia and Low Numeracy." *Developmental Science* 11(5): 669-680.

Johnson, Eric J., John Hershey, Jacqueline Meszaros, and Howard Kunreuther. 1993. "Framing, Probability Distortions, and Insurance Decisions." *Journal of Risk and Uncertainty* 7: 35-51.

Miller, George A. 1956. "The Magic Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on our Capacity to Process Information." *Psychological Review* 101(2): 343-352.

Tversky, Amos and Daniel Kahneman. 1974. "Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases." *Science* 185 (4157): 1124-1131.

**Resources on Children's Education, Development and Numeracy**

**Books and Reports**

Askew, Mike, Valerie Rhodes, Margaret Brown, Dylan Wiliam, and David Johnson. 1997. *Effective Teachers of Numeracy: Report of a Study Carried Out for the Teacher Training Agency*. London: King's College, University of London.

Harris, Pamela Weber. 2011. *Building Powerful Numeracy for Middle and High School Students.* Portsmouth, NH: Heineman.

Macmillan, Agnes. 2009. *Numeracy in Early Childhood.* New York: Oxford University Press.

Moseley, David, Steve Higgins, Rod Bramald, Frank Hardman, Jen Miller, Maria Mroz, Harrison Tse, Doug Newton, Ian Thompson, John Williamson, Jean Halligan, Sarah Bramald, Lynne Newton, Peter Tymms, Brian Henderson, and Jane Stout. 1999. *Ways Forward with ICT: Effective Pedagogy Using Information and Communications Technology for Literacy and Numeracy in Primary Schools.* Research Team from Newcastle University and Durham University for this Report commissioned by the Teacher Training Agency.

Ritchart, Ronald E. 1993. *Making Numbers Make Sense: A Sourcebook for Developing Numeracy in Grades K-8.* Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

Sangster, Margaret and Rona Catterall. 2009. *Early Numeracy: Mathematical Activities for 3 to 5-Year Olds*. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Shumway, Jessica F. and Lucy West. 2011. *Number Sense Routines: Building Numerical Literacy Every Day in Grades K-3.* Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.

Stenmark, Jean Kerr, Virginia Thompson, and Ruth Cossey. 1986. *Family Math*. Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Hall of Science.

Thompson, Virginia and Karen Mayfield-Ingram. 1998. *Family Math: The Middle School Years, Algebraic Reasoning and Number Sense*. Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Hall of Science.

Watson, Jane M. 2006. *Statistical Literacy at School*. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Wright, Robert J., Garry Stanger, Ann K. Stafford, and Jim Martland. 2006. *Teaching Number in the Classroom with 4-8 Year-Olds*. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Whitin, David J. and Phyllis E. Whitin. 2010. *Learning to Read the Numbers: Integrating Critical Literacy and Critical Numeracy in K-8 Classroom*. New York: Routledge.

**Articles**

Coplan, Robert J., Ann M. Barber, and Daniel G. Lagacé-Séguin. 1999. "The Role of Child Temperament as a Predictor of Early Literacy and Numeracy in Preschoolers." *Early Childhood Research Quarterly* 14(4): 537-553.

Doerr, Helen M. and Lyn D. English. 2003. "A Modeling Perspective on Students' Mathematical Reasoning about Data." *Journal for Research in Mathematics Education* 34(2): 110-136.

Duffin, Janet. 1978. "Some Thoughts on Numeracy." *Mathematics in Schools* 7(5): 26-28.

Hersee, John. 1978. "Numeracy: Towards a Definition." *Mathematics in Schools* 7(4): 35.

Lawson, Anton E. and Jonathan M. Bealer. 1984. "The Acquisition of Basic Quantitative Reasoning Skills During Adolescence: Learning or Development?" *Journal of Research in Science Teaching* 21: 417-423.

Munn, Penny. 1994. "The Early Development of Literacy and Numeracy Skills." *European Early Childhood Research Journal* 2(1): 5-18.

Ransom, Peter and Helen Louch. 2000. "Who Says Calculators Don't Improve Numeracy?" *Mathematics in School* 29(2): 11-13.

Smith, Cathy. 1999. "Pencil and Paper Numeracy." *Mathematics in Schools* 28(5): 10-13.

Weeden, Graham. 2002. "Making Numeracy Games with Getting Your Loops in a Knot." *Mathematics in Schoo*l 31(5): 35-40.

**Resources on Ethnomathematics and Multicultural Mathematics**

**Books**

Ascher, Marcia. 1994. Ethnomathematics: A Multicultural View of Mathematical Ideas. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

______. 2004. Mathematics Elsewhere: An Exploration of Ideas Across Cultures. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Ascher, Marcia and Ubiratan D'Ambrosio. Editors. 1994. "Special Issue on Ethnomathematics in Mathematics Education." For the Learning of Mathematics 14(2).

Bishop, Alan J. 1991. Mathematical Enculturation: A Cultural Perspective on Mathematics Education. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.

Closs, Michael P Editor. 1998. Native American Mathematics. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

D'Ambrosio, Ubiratan. 2004. Ethnomathematics: Link Between Traditions and Modernity. Sense Publishers.

Eglash, Ron. 1999. African Fractals: Modern Computing and Indigenous Design. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Gerdes, Paulus. 1998. Women, Art, and Geometry in South Africa. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.

Gilsdorf, Thomas E. 2012. Introduction to Cultural Mathematics: With Case Studies in Otomies and Incas. Wiley.

Krause, Marina C. 1983. Multicultural Mathematics Materials. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Mesquita, Monica, Sal Restivo, Ubiratan D'Ambrosio. 2011. Asphalt Children and City Streets: A Life, a City, and a Case Study of History, Culture, and Ethnomathematics in Sao Paulo. Boston, MA: Sense Publishers.

Nelson, David, George Gheverghese Joseph and Julian Williams. 1993.Multicultural Mathematics: Teaching Mathematics from a Global Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.

Powell, Arthur B. and Marilyn Frankenstein. Editors. 1997. Ethnomathematics: Challenging Eurocentrism in Mathematics Education. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Zaslavsky, Claudia. 1979. Africa Counts: Number and Pattern in African Culture. Brooklyn, NY: Lawrence Hill Books.

______. 1998. Math Games and Activities from Around the World. Chicago, IL: Chicago Review Press.

______. 1999. Multicultural Mathematics: Interdisciplinary Cooperative Learning Activities. Portland, Maine: J. Weston Walch.

**Articles and Book Chapters**

Barton, Bill. 1997. "Making Sense of Ethnomathematics: Ethnomathematics is Making Sense." Educational Studies in Mathematics 31 (1/2): 201-233.

D'Ambrosio, Ubiratan. 2001. "What is Ethnomathematics, and How Can it Help Children in Schools?" Teaching Children Mathematics 7(6): 308-310.

Garegae, Kgomotso G. 2007. "Closing the Missing Link in Ethnomathematics Research: The Socio-Affective Dimension of Cultural Artifacts." AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Scholarship 3(2): 46-59.

Iseke-Barnes, Judy M. 2000. "Ethnomathematics and Language in Decolonizing Mathematics." Race, Gender & Class in Education 7(3): 133-49.

Khan, Steven. 2011. "Ethnomathematics as Mythopoetic Curriculum." For the Learning of Mathematics 31(3): 14-18.

Knijnik, Gelsa. 2002. "Ethnomathematics: Culture and Politics of Knowledge in Mathematics Education." For the Learning of Mathematics 22(1): 11-14.

Redish, Edward. 2012. "The Role of Context and Culture in Teaching Physics: The Implications of Disciplinary Differences." Keynote Address presented as the World Conference on Physics Education, Istanbul, Turkey.

Rowlands, Stuart and Robert Carson. 2002. "Where Would Formal, Academic Mathematics Stand in a Curriculum Informed by Ethnomathematics? A Critical Review of Ethnomathematics." Educational Studies in Mathematics 50(1): 79-102.

Spelke, Elizabeth A. 2005. "Sex Differences in Intrinsic Aptitude for Mathematics and Science? A Critical Review." American Psychologist 60(9): 950-58.

Yusuf, Mohammed Waziri, Ibrahim Saidu, Aisha Hallru. "Ethnomathematics: A Case of Wasakwakwalwa (Hausa Culture Puzzles) in Northern Nigeria." International Journal of Basic & Applied Science 10(1): 14-23.

Zaslavsky, Claudia. 1994. "Africa Counts and Ethnomathematics." For the Learning of Mathematics 14(2): 3-8.

**Resources for Integrating Quantitative Reasoning and Mathematics in Writing, Reading, and Communication**

**Books**

Bolten, Randall. 2012. Painting with Numbers: Presenting Financials and other Numbers so People Will Understand You. Wiley.

Cohen, Sarah. 2001. Numbers in the Newsroom: Using Math and Statistics in the News. Columbia, MO: Investigative Reporters and Editors, Inc.

Connolly, Paul and Teresa Vilardi, Editors. 1989. Writing to Learn Mathematics and Sciences. New York: Teachers College Press: Columbia University.

Franco, Betsy. 2006. Math Poetry: Linking Language and Math in a Fresh Way. Tucson, AZ: Goodyear Books.

Gillman, Leonard. 1987. Writing Mathematics Well: A Manual for Authors. Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America.

Gray, Jonathan, Liliana Bounegru, and Lucy Chambers, Editors. 2012. The Data Journalism Handbook. O'Reilly Media.

Krantz, Steve G. 1996. A Primer of Mathematical Writing: Being a Disquisition on Having your Ideas Recorded, Typeset, Published, Read, and Appreciated. Washington, DC: American Mathematical Association.

Laminack, Lester L., and Reba M. Wadsworth. 2006. Reading Aloud Across the Curriculum: How to Build Bridges in Language Arts, Math, Science and Social Studies. Portsmouth, NJ: Heinemann Books.

Meier, John and Thomas Rishel. 1998. Writing in the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics. Washington, DC: The Mathematical Association of America.

Meyer, Phillip. 1991. The New Precision Journalism . Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Miller, Jane E. 2004. The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers: The Effective Presentation of Quantitative Information. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Paulos, John Allen. 1998. Once Upon a Number: The Hidden Mathematical Logic of Stories. New York: Basic Books.

Sterrett, Andrew. 1990. Using Writing to Teach Mathematics MAA Notes 16. Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America.

**Articles and Books Chapters**

Bressoud, David. 2006. "Launchings from the CUPM Curriculum Guide: Writing to Learn Mathematics." Mathematical Association of America.

Field, William J., Daniel R. Watcher, Anthony V. Catanese, and Karl E. Case. 1985. "Alternative Ways to Teach and Learn Economics: Writing, Quantitative Reasoning, and Oral Communication." Journal of Economic Education 16(3): 213-217.

Fink, John B. and Eric D. Nordmoe. 2006. "A Decade of Quantitative Reasoning at Kalamazoo College." In Current Practices in Quantitative Literacy, edited by Rick Gillman. Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America. Pp. 51-62.

Ganguli, Aparna. 1989. "Integrating Writing in Developmental Mathematics College Teaching." College Teaching 37: 140-142.

Grawe, Nathan. 2011. "The Potential for Teaching Quantitative Reasoning Across the Curriculum: Empirical Evidence." International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning 5(1). 12 p.

Grawe, Nathan D. and Carol A. Rutz. 2009. "Integration with Writing Programs: A Strategy for Quantitative Reasoning Program Development." Numeracy 2(2): Article 2.

Kirk, Honey and Diane Lerma. 2010. "Reading your Way to Success in Mathematics: A Paired Course of Developmental Mathematics and Reading." MathAMATYC Educator 1(2): 10-14.

Lutsky, Neil. 2008. "Arguing with Numbers: Teaching Quantitative Reasoning through Argument and Writing." In Calculation vs. Context: Quantitative Literacy and Its Implications for Teacher Education, edited by Bernard L. Madison and Lynn Arthur Steen. Mathematical Association of America. Pp. 59-74.

Madison, Bernard. 2012. "If Only Math Majors Could Write." Numeracy 5(1): Article 6.

Mendes, Jackeline Rodriquez. 2007. "Numeracy and Literacy in a Bilingual Context: Indigenous Teachers Education in Brazil." Educational Studies in Mathematics 64(2): 217-230..

Meyer, Jeanine and Catherine Dwyer. 2005/2006. "Improving Quantitative Reasoning Through Analysis of News Stories." International Journal of Learning 12(6); 165-171.

**Resources on Representations of Quantitative Data**

**Books**

D'Efilippo,Valentina and David Ball. 2013. The Infographic History of the World. Harper Collins.

Few, Stephen. 2009. Now You See It: Simple Visualization Techniques for Quantitative Analysis. Burlingame, CA: Analytics Press.

Harris, Robert L. 2000. Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. New York: Oxford University Press.

Jones, Gerald Everett. 2000. How to Lie with Charts. iUniverse.

Rendgen, Sandra. 2012. Information Graphics. Los Angeles, CA: Taschen.

Tufte, Edward R. 2001. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics.

______. 2006. Beautiful Evidence. Cheshire, CT: Graphics.

Wainer, Howard. 2011. Picturing the Uncertain World: How to Understand, Communicate, and Control Uncertainty through Graphical Display. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Ware, Colin. 2012. Information Visualization: Perception for Design. Third Edition. Burlington, MA: Morgan Kaufmann.

Wong, Dona M. 2010. The Wall Street Journal Guide to Information Graphics: The Dos and Don'ts of Presenting Data, Facts and Figures. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.

Yau, Nathan. 2011. Visualize This: The Flowing Data Guide to Design, Visualization and Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

**Articles and Book Chapters**

Baker, John and Stephen J. Sugden. 2003. "Spreadsheets in Education –The First 25 Years." Spreadsheets in Education (eJSiE) 1(2): Article 2.

Kemp, Marian and Barry Kissane. 2010. "A Five Step Framework for Interpreting Tables and Graphs in Their Contexts." ICOTS8. Invited paper, refereed.

Lehto, Heather L. and H. L Vacher. 2012. "Spreadsheets Across the Curriculum, 4: Evidence of Student Learning and Attitudes about Spreadsheets in a Physical Geology Course." Numeracy 5 (2) Article 5.

McFarland, Jenny. 2010. "Teaching and Assessing Graphing Using Active Learning." MathAMATYC Educator 1(2): 32-39.

Shah, Priti, and James Hoeffner. 2002. "Review of Graph Comprehension Research: Implications for Instruction." *Educational Psychology Review* 14(1): 47-69.

Vacher, H. Len and Emily Lardner. 2010. "Spreadsheets Across the Curriculum 1: The Idea and the Resource."Numeracy 3(2): Article 6.

Vacher, H. Len and Emily Lardner. 2011. "Spreadsheets Across the Curriculum, 3: Finding a List of Mathematical Skills for Quantitative Literacy Empirically." Numeracy 4(1): Article 5.

Wainer, Howard. 1992. "Understanding Graphs and Tables." *Educational Researche*r 12(1): 14-23.

Wetzel, Laura Reisel. 2001. "Spreadsheets Across the Curriculum, 2: Assessing our Success with Students at Eckerd College." Numeracy 4(1): Article 4.

Wills, Jeremiah B. and Maxine P. Atkinson. 2007. "Table Reading Skills as Quantitative Literacy." Teaching Sociology 35(3): 255-263.

**Resources on Health Numeracy**

**Books**

Bracken, Michael B. 2013. *Risk, Chance and Causation: Investigating the Origins and Treatment of Disease.* New Haven: Yale University Press.

Cohn, Victor and Lewis Cope. 2001. News and Numbers: A Guide to Reporting Statistical Claims and Controversies in Health and Other Fields. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley and Blackwell.

Lewis, Al. 2012. Why Nobody Believes the Numbers: Distinguishing Fact from Fiction in Population Health Management. SF, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Osborne, Helen. 2011. Health Literacy from A to Z. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.

Zarcadoolas, Christina, Andrew F. Pleasant, and David S. Greer. 2007. Advancing Health Literacy. SF, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Wainer, Howard. 2014. *Medical Illuminations: Using Evidence, Visualization and Statistical Thinking to Improve Healthcare*. New York: Oxford University Press.

Woloshin, Steven, Lisa M. Schwartz, and Gilbert Welch. 2008. Know Your Chances. Berkeley: University of California Press.

**Articles and Books Chapters**

Adelswärd, Viveka and Lisbeth Sachs. 1996. "The Meaning of 6.8: Numeracy and Normality and Health Information Talks." Social Science & Medicine 43(8): 1179-1187.

Ancker, Jessica S. and David Kaufman. 2007. "Rethinking Health Numeracy: A Multidisciplinary Literature Review." Journal of the American Medical Informatics Society 14(6): 713-721.

Amalrai, S., C. Starkweather, C. Nguyen, and A. Naeim. 2009. "Health Literacy, Communication and Treatment Decision-Making in Older Cancer Patients." Oncology 23(4): 369-375.

Apter, Andrea J., Jing Cheng, Dylan Small, Ian M. Bennett, Claire Albert, Daniel G. Fein, Maureen George, and Simone Van Home. 2006. "Asthma Numeracy Skill and Health Illiteracy." J Asthma 43(9): 705-710.

Baker, David W. 2006. "The Meaning and Measure of Health Illiteracy." Journal of General Internal Medicine 21(8): 878-883.

Cartwright, Margaret. 1998. "Numeracy Needs of the Beginning Registered Nurse." Nurse Education Today 16(2): 137-143.

Cavanaugh, K., M.M. Huizinga, K.A. Wallston, T. Gebretsadik, A. Shintani, D. Davis, R.P. Gregory, L. Fuchs, R. Malone, A. Cherrington, M. Pignone, D.A. DeWalt, T.A. Elasy, and R.L. Rothman. 2008. "Association of Numeracy and Diabetes Control." Annals of Internal Medicine 148(10): 737-746.

Cavanaugh, Kerri, Tebeb Gebretsadik, Mary Margaret Huizinga, Rebecca Pratt Gregory, Michael Pignone, and Tom A. Elasy. 2009. "Addressing Literacy and Numeracy to Improve Diabetes Care." Diabetes Care 32(12): 2149-2155.

Choi, H., J.B. Wong, A. Mendiratta, G.A. Heiman, and M.J. Hamberger. 2011. "Numeracy and Framing Bias in Epilepsy." Epilepsy & Behavior 20(1): 29-33.

Donelle, L., J.F. Arocha, and L. Hoffman-Goetz. 2008. "Health Literacy and Numeracy: Key Factors in Cancer Risk Comprehension." Chronic Diseases in Canada 29(1):1-8.

Donelle, L., L. Hoffman-Goetz, and J.F. Arocha. 2007. "Assessing Health Numeracy among Community-Dwelling Older Adults." Journal of Health Communication 12(7): 651-665.

Donelle, L., L. Hoffman-Goetz, S. Gatobu, and J.F. Arocha. 2009. "Comprehension of Internet-based Numeric Cancer Information by Older Adults." Informatics for Health & Social Care 34(4): 209-224.

Estrada, Carolos, Vetta Barnes, Cathy Collins, and James C. Byrd. 1999. "Health Literacy and Numeracy." The Journal of the American Medical Association 282(6): 527.

Estrada, Carlos, Mary Martin-Hryniewicz, Brian Peek, Cathy Collins, and James Byrd. 2004. "Literacy and Numeracy Skills and Anticoagulation Control." American Journal of Medical Sciences 328(2): 88-93

Fagerlin, A., Zikmund-Fisher, B.J., Ubel, P.A., Jankovic, A., Derry, H.A., & Smith, D.M. 2007. "Measuring Numeracy without a Math Test: Development of the Subjective Numeracy Scale (SNS)." Medical Decision Making 27(5): 672-680.

Galesic, Mirta and Rocio Garcia-Retamero. 2010. "Statistical Numeracy for Health: A Cross-Cultural Comparison with Probabilistic National Samples." Archives of Internal Medicine 170(5): 462-468.

Galesic, Mirta, Rocio Garcia-Retamero, and Gerd Gigerenzer. 2009. "Using Icon Arrays to Communicate Medical Risks: Overcoming Low Numeracy." Health Psychology 28(2): 210-216.

Golbeck, Amanda L., Carolyn R. Ahlers-Schmidt, Angela M. Paschal, and S. Edwards Dismuke. 2005. "A Definition and Operational Framework for Health Numeracy." American Journal of Preventive Medicine 29(4): 375-376.

Golbeck, A., A. Paschal, A. Jones, and T. Hsiao. 2011. "Correlating Reading Comprehension and Health Numeracy." Patient Education and Counseling 84(1): 132-134.

Gong, D.A. J.Y. Lee, R.G. Rozier, B.T. Pahel, J.A. Richman, and W.F. Vann, Jr. 2007. "Development and Testing of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Dentistry (TOFHLiD)." Journal of Public Health Dentistry 67(2): 105-112.

Huizinga, Mary Margaret, Bettina M. Beech, Kerri L. Cavanaugh, Tom A. Elasy, and Russell L. Rothman. 2008. "Low Numeracy Skills are Associated with Higher BMI." Obesity 16(8): 1966-1968.

Huizinga, Mary M., Tom A. Elasy, Kenneth A. Wallston, Kerri Cavanaugh, Dianne Davis, Rebecca P. Gregory, Lynn S. Fuchs, Robert Malone, Andrea Cherrington, Darren A. DeWalt, John Buse, Michael Pignone, and Russell L. Rothman. 2008. "Development and Validation of the Diabetes Numeracy Test (DNT)." BMC Health Services Research 8: 96.

Kickbusch, Ilona. 2001. "Health Literacy: Addressing the Health and Education Divide." Health Promotion International 16(3): 289-297.

Okamoto, M. Y. Kytoku, M. Sawada, L. Clowney, E. Watanabe, I. Dan, and K. Kawamoto. 2012. "Health Numeracy in Japan: Measures of Basic Numeracy Account for Framing Bias in a Highly Numerate Population." BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making. Abstract available online.

Master, V.A., T.V. Johnson, A. Abbasi, S.S. Ehrlich, R.S. Kleris, S. Abbasi, A. Prater, A. Owen-Smith, and M. Goodman. 2010. "Poorly Numerate Patients in an Inner City Hospital Misunderstood the American Urological Association Symptom Score." Urology 75(1): 148-152.

Mõttus, R., W. Johnson, C. Murray, M.S. Wolf, J.M. Starr, and I.J. Deary. 2013. "Towards Understanding the Links Between Health Literacy and Physical Health." Health Psychology [Epub ahead of print]

Nelson, Wendy, Valerie F. Reyna, Angela Fagerlin, Isaac Lipkus, and Ellen Peters. 2008. "Clinical Implications of Numeracy: Theory and Practice." Annals of Behavioral Medicine 35(3): 261-274.

Osborn, C.Y., K.A. Wallston, A. Shpigel, K. Cavanaugh, S. Kripalani, and R.L. Rothman. 2013. "Development and Validation of the General Health Numeracy Test (GHNT)." Patient Education and Counseling. [Epub ahead of print].

Parker, Ruth M., David W. Baker, Mark V. Williams, and Joanne R. Nurss. 1995. "The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults: A New Instrument for Measuring Patients' Literacy Skills." Journal of General Internal Medicine10(10): 537-41.

Peters, Ellen, Nathan Dieckmann, Anna Dixon, Judith H. Hibbard, and C.K. Mertz. 2007. "Less is More in Presenting Quality Information to Consumers." Medical Care Research and Review 64(2): 169-190.

Peters, Ellen, Judith Hibbard, Paul Slovic, and Nathan Dieckmann. 2007. "Numeracy Skills and the Communication. Comprehension, and use of Risk-Benefit Information." Health Affairs 26(3): 741-748.

Portnoy, D.B., D. Roter and L.H. Erby. 2010. "The Role of Numeracy on Client Knowledge in BRCA Genetic Counseling." Patient Education and Counseling 81(1): 131-136.

Reyna, Valerie F. and Charles J. Brainerd. 2007. "The Importance of Mathematics in Health and Human Judgment: Numeracy, Risk Communication and Medical Decision Making." Learning and Individual Differences 17(2): 147-159.

Reyna, Valerie F., Wendy L. Nelson, Paul K. Han, and Nathan F. Dieckmann. 2009. "How Numeracy Influences Risk Comprehension and Medical Decision Making." Psychological Bulletin 135(6): 943-973.

Rothman, R.L., R. Housam, H. Weiss, D. Davis, R. Gregory, T. Gebretsadik, A. Shintani, and T.A. Elasy. 2006. "Patient Understanding of Food Labels: The Role of Literacy and Numeracy." American Journal of Preventive Medicine 31(5): 391-398.

Rothman, Russell L., Victor M. Montori, Andrea Cherrington, and Michael P. Pignone. 2008. "Perspective: The Role of Numeracy in Health Care." Journal of Health Communication 13(6): 583-595.

Schapira, M.M., K.E. Fletcher, P.S. Ganschow, C.M. Walker, B. Tyler, S. Del Pozo, C. Schauer, and E.A. Jacobs. 2011. "The Meaning of Numbers in Health: Exploring Health Numeracy in a Mexican-American Population." Journal of General Internal Medicine 26(7): 705-711.

Schapira, M.M., K.E. Fletcher, M.A. Gilligan, T.K. King, P.W. Laud, B.A. Matthews, J.M. Neuner, and E. Hayes. 2008. "A Framework for Health Numeracy: How Patients Use Quantitative Skills In Health Care." Journal of Health Communication 13(5): 501-517.

Schwartz, Lisa M., Steve Woloshin, William C. Black, and H. Gilbert Welch.1997. "The Role of Numeracy in Understanding the Benefit of Screening Mammography." Annals of Internal Medicine 127(11): 966-972.

Schwartz, Lisa M., Steve Woloshin, and H. Gilbert Welch. 2005. "Can Patients Interpret Health Information? An Assessment of the Medical Data Interpretation Test." Medical Decision Making 25(3): 290-300.

Sheridan, S.L., and M. Pignone. 2002. "Numeracy and the Medical Student's Ability to Interpret Data." Effective Clinical Practice 5(1): 35-40.

Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna, Deboah L. Jones, Dushyantha Jayaweera, Peggy Gonzalez, Javier Romero, and Raymond L. Ownby. 2009. "Gender Differences in Medical Management Capacity in HIV Infection: the Role of Health Literacy and Numeracy." AIDS Behavior 13(1): 46-52.

Williams, M.V., R.M. Parker, D.W. Baker, N.S. Parikh, K. Pitkin, W.C. Coates, and J.R. Nurss. 1995. "Inadequate Functional Health Literacy among Patients at Two Public Hospitals." Journal of the American Medical Association 274(21): 1677-82.

Woloshin, Steve, Lisa M. Schwartz, and H.Gilbert Welch. 2005. "Patients and Medical Statistics. Interest, Confidence, and Ability." Journal of General Internal Medicine 20(11): 996-1000.

Woloshin, Steven, Lisa M. Schwartz, Megan Moncur, Sherine Gabriel, and Anna N.A. Tosteson. 2001. "Assessing Values for Health: Numeracy Matters. Medical Decision Making 21(5): 382-390.

Yin, H. Shonna, Matthew Johnson, Alan L. Mendelsohn, Mary Ann Abrams, Lee M. Sanders, Benard P. Dreyer. 2009. "The Health Literacy of Parents in the United States: A Nationally Representative Study." Pediatrics 124(3): S289-S298.

Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J., Dylan M. Smith, Peter A. Ubel, and Angela Fagerlin. 2007. "Validation of the Subjective Numeracy Scale: Effects of Low Numeracy on Comprehension of Risk Communications and Utility Elicitations." Medical Decision Making 27(5): 663-671.

**Resources for Integrating Quantitative Reasoning Across the Disciplines and Throughout the Curriculum**

**Books**

Garland, Trudi Hammel. 1987. Fascinating Fibonaccis: Mystery and Magic in Numbers. Palo Alto, CA: Dale Seymour.

Garland, Trudi Hammel and Charity Vaughan Kahn. 1995. Math and Music: Harmonious Connections. Palo Alto, CA: Dale Seymour.

Gelman, Andrea and Jeronimo Cartina. 2009. A Quantitative Tour of the Social Sciences. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Gillman, Rick, Editor. 2006. Current Practices in Quantitative Literacy. Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America.

Greenleaf, Frederick P. 2000. Quantitative Reasoning: Understanding the Mathematical Patterns of Nature, 2^{nd} edition. Hightstown, NJ: Primis.

Johnson, Keith. 2008. Quantitative Methods in Linguistics. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.

Katz, Victor, Editor. 2000. Using History to Teach Mathematics: An International Perspective. Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America.

Laing, Laura. 2014. Math for Writers: Tell a Better Story, Get Published, Make More Money. Laura E. Laing.

Langkamp, Greg and Joseph Hull. 2006. Quantitative Reasoning and the Environment: Mathematical Modeling in Context. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Martin, Hope and Madeleine J. Long. 1996. Integrating Mathematics Across the Curriculum, Vol. 1. Arlington Heights, IL: SkyLight Professional Development.

Miller, Jane. 2010. "Quantitative Literacy Across the Curriculum: Integrating Skills from English Composition, Mathematics, and the Substantive Disciplines." The English Forum 74(4): 334-346.

Schneps, Leila and Coralie Colmez. 2013. Math on Trial: How Numbers Get Used and Abused in the Courtroom. New York: Basic Books.

Stewart, Ian. 1995. Nature's Numbers: The Unreal Reality of Mathematics. New York, New York: Basic Books.

Stutely, Richard. 2003. Numbers Guide: The Essentials of Business Numeracy. 5th Edition. Hoboken, NJ: Bloomberg Press.'

The Economist. 2014. The Economist Numbers Guide: The Essentials of Business Numeracy (6th Edition). The Economist.

**Articles and Books Chapters**

Atkinson, Maxine P., Ronald F. Czaja, and Zachary B. Brewster. 2006. "Integrating Sociological Research in Large Introductory Courses: Learning Content and Increasing Quantitative Literacy." Teaching Sociology 34(1): 54-64.

Bogue, Allan G. 1990. "The Quest for Numeracy: Data and Methods in American Political History." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 21(1): 89-116.

Bressoud, David. 2006. "Quantitative Methods for Public Policy." In Current Practices in Quantitative Literacy, edited by Rick Gillman. Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America. Pp. 23-28.

______. 2009. "Establishing the Quantitative Thinking Program at Macalester." Numeracy 2(1): Article 3.

Carlson, Gaylen Richard. 2000. "Density as an Integrating Topic to Promote Quantitative Reasoning in Non-Science Majors." Journal of Geoscience Education 48(4): 436-439.

Carpo, Mario. 2003. "Drawing with Numbers: Geometry and Numeracy in Early Modern Architectural Design." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 62(4); 448-469.

Coe, Paul R. and Sarah N. Ziesler. 2006. "Quantitative Literacy at Dominican University." In Current Practices in Quantitative Literacy, edited by Rick Gillman. Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America. Pp. 35-40.

Diefenderfer, Caren, Ruth Doan, and Christina Salowey. 2006. "The Quantitative Reasoning Program at Hollins University." In Current Practices in Quantitative Literacy, edited by Rick Gillman. Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America. Pp. 41-48.

Frith, Vera. 2012. "Quantitative Literacy Interventions at University of Cape Town: Effects of Separation from Academic Disciplines." Numeracy 5(1):Article 3.

Fuller, Theodore D. 1998. ''Using Computer Assignments to Promote Active Learning in the Undergraduate Social Problems Course.'' Teaching Sociology 26(3): 215-21.

Gordon, Sheldon and Jack Winn. 2006. "Interconnected Quantitative Learning at Farmingdale State." In Current Practices in Quantitative Literacy, edited by Rick Gillman. Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America. Pp. 55-62.

Haines, Beth and Joy Jordan. 2006. "Quantitative Reasoning Across the Curriculum." In Current Practices in Quantitative Literacy, edited by Rick Gillman. Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America. Pp. 63-68.

Hartzler, Rebecca and Deann Leoni. 2006. "Mathematics Across the Curriculum." In Current Practices in Quantitative Literacy, edited by Rick Gillman. Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America. Pp. 69-74

Hillyard, Cinnamon, Jane Korey, Deann Leoni, and Rebecca Hartzler. 2010. "Math Across the Community College Curriculum (MAC^{3}): A Successful Path to Quantitative Literacy." MathAMATYC Educator 1(2): 4-9.

Himes, Christine L. and Christine Caffrey. 2003. "Linking Social Gerontology with Quantitative Skills: A Class Project Using U.S. Census Data." Teaching Sociology 31(1): 85-94.

Howery, Carla B. and Havidan Rodriquez. 2006. "Integrating Data Analysis (IDA): Working with Sociology Departments to Address the Quantitative Literacy Gap." Teaching Sociology 34(1): 23-38.

Hughes-Hallett, Deborah. 2012. "The Role of Mathematics Courses in the Development of Quantitative Literacy." In Quantitative Literacy: Why Numeracy Matters for Schools and Colleges, edited by Bernard L Madison and Lynn Arthur Steen. Princeton: NJ: The National Council on Education and the Disciplines. Pp. 91-98.

Jabon, David. 2006. "Quantitative Reasoning: An Interdisciplinary, Technology Infused Approach." In Current Practices in Quantitative Literacy, edited by Rick Gillman. Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America. Pp. 111-117.

Johnson, Jerry. 2006. "Math Across the Curriculum at UNR." Current Practices in Quantitative Literacy , edited by Rick Gillman. Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America. Pp. 75-80.

Jungck, John R. 2012. "Incorporating Quantitative Reasoning in Common Core Courses: Mathematics for The Ghost Map." Numeracy 5(1): Article 7.

Kirst, Michael W. 2003. "Articulation and Mathematical Literacy: Political and Policy Issues." In Quantitative Literacy: Why Numeracy Matters for Schools and Colleges, edited by Bernard L Madison and Lynn Arthur Steen. Princeton: NJ: The National Council on Education and the Disciplines. Pp. 107-120.

Limbaugh, Jim. 2005. "Frostburg State University: Basic Proficiencies in Quantitative Reasoning." Report on behalf of the faculty planning group on quantitative reasoning.

Markham, William T. 1991. ''Research Methods in the Introductory Course: To Be or Not to Be?'' Teaching Sociology 19(4): 464-71.

Persell, Caroline Hodges. 1992. ''Bringing PCs into Introductory Sociology Courses: First Steps, Missteps, and Future Prospects.'' Teaching Sociology 20(2): 91-103.

Powell, Wayne and David Leveson. 2002. "The Unique Role of Introductory Geology Courses in Teaching Quantitative Reasoning."

Raymondo, James C. 1996. ''Developing a Computer Laboratory for Undergraduate Sociology Courses.'' Teaching Sociology 24(3): 305-09.

Rheinlander, Kim and Wallace, Dorothy. 2011. "Calculus, Biology and Medicine: A Case Study in Quantitative Literacy for Science Students." Numeracy 4(1): Article 3.

Salowey, Christina A. 2009. "Quantitative Reasoning and Scientific Analysis in the Ancient Art Classroom." Classical Journal 104(4): 341-350.

Sweet, Stephen, Suzanne Morgan, and Danette I. Johnson, 2008. "Using Local Data to Advance Quantitative Literacy." Numeracy 1(2): Article 4.

Taylor, Corrine. 2006. "Quantitative Reasoning at Wellesley College." In Current Practices in Quantitative Literacy , edited by Rick Gillman. Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America. Pp. 141-146.

Wolfe, Christopher R. 1993. "Quantitative Reasoning Across a College Curriculum." College Teaching 41(1): 3-9.

Wilder, Esther Isabelle. 2009. ''Responding to the Quantitative Literacy Gap among Students in Sociology Courses.'' Teaching Sociology 37(2): 151-70.

**Resources on Quantitative Reasoning Assessment**

**Books and Reports**

Aliaga, Martha, George Cobb, Carolyn Cuff, Joan Garfield (Chair), Rob Gould, Robin Lock, Tom Moore, Allan Rossman, Bob Stephenson, Jessica Utts, Paul Velleman, and Jeff Witmer. 2010. Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education: College Report. Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association.

Bidgood, Penelope, Neville Hunt and Flavia Jolliffe (Editors). 2010. Assessment Methods in Statistical Education: An International Perspective. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Cowan, John. 1998. On Becoming an Innovative University Teacher: Reﬂection in Action. Buckingham Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press.

Franklin, Christine, Gary Kader, Denise Newborn, Jerry Moreno, Roxy Peck, Mike Perry, Richard Scheaffer. 2007. Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education (GAISE) Report: A Pre-K-12 Curriculum Framework. Alexandria, Virginia: American Statistical Association.

Gal, Iddo and Joan B. Garfield. Editors. 1997. The Assessment Challenge in Statistics Education. Amsterdam: IOS Press in association with International Statistical Institute.

Suskie, Linda. 2009. Assessing Student Learning: A Common Sense Guide, 2nd Edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Webb, Norman L. Editor. 1993. Assessment in the Mathematics Classroom (1993 Yearbook). Reston, VA: NCTM.

Wright, Robert J., David Ellemor-Collins, and Pamela D. Tabor. 2011. Developing Number Knowledge: Assessment, Teaching & Intervention with 7-11 Year Olds. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Wright, Robert J., James Martland, and Ann K. Stafford. 2006. Early Numeracy: Assessment for Teaching and Intervention. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

**Articles and Book Chapters**

Asia E-University. 2009. "Classroom Assessment." Chapter 10 in Educational Psychology (online course).

Boersma, Stuart, Caren Diefenderfer, Shannon W. Dingman, and Bernard L. Madison. 2011. "Quantitative Reasoning in the Contemporary World, 3: Assessing Student Learning." Numeracy 4(2): Article 8.

Bookman, Jack, Susan L. Ganter, and Rick Morgan. 2008. "Developing Assessment Methodologies for Quantitative Literacy: A Formative Study." The American Mathematical Monthly 115(10): 911-929.

Davies, Neville and John Marriott. 2010. "Assessment and Feedback in Statistics." In Assessment Methods in Statistical Education: An International Perspective, edited by Penelope Bidgood, Neville Hunt and Flavia Jolliffe. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Pp. 3-19.

Dwyer, Carol Anne, Ann Gallagher, Jutta Levin, and Mary E. Morley. 2003. What is Quantitative Reasoning? Defining the Construct for Assessment Purposes. Princeton: NJ. Educational Testing Services (ETS).

Fagerlin, A., Zikmund-Fisher, B.J., Ubel, P.A., Jankovic, A., Derry, H.A., & Smith, D.M. 2007. "Measuring Numeracy without a Math Test: Development of the Subjective Numeracy Scale (SNS)." Medical Decision Making 27(5): 672-680.

Gong, D.A. J.Y. Lee, R.G. Rozier, B.T. Pahel, J.A. Richman, and W.F. Vann, Jr. 2007. "Development and Testing of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Dentistry (TOFHLiD)." Journal of Public Health Dentistry 67(2): 105-112.

Grawe, Nathan D, Neil S. Lutsky, and Christopher J. Tassava. 2010. "A Rubric for Assessing Quantitative Reasoning in Written Arguments." Numeracy 3(1):Article 3.

Huizinga, Mary M., Tom A. Elasy, Kenneth A. Wallston, Kerri Cavanaugh, Dianne Davis, Rebecca P. Gregory, Lynn S. Fuchs, Robert Malone, Andrea Cherrington, Darren A. DeWalt, John Buse, Michael Pignone, and Russell L. Rothman. 2008. "Development and Validation of the Diabetes Numeracy Test (DNT)." BMC Health Services Research 8: 96.

Hurney, Carol A., Justin Brown, Heather Peckham Griscom. 2011. "Closing the Loop: Involving Faculty in the Assessment of Scientific and Quantitative Reasoning Skills of Biology Majors." Journal of College Science Teaching 40(6): 18-23.

Johnson, Yvette Nicole and Jennifer J. Kaplan. N.d. "Assessing the Quantitative Literacy of Students at a Large Public Research University.'' Michigan State University. Unpublished manuscript.

Jones, Elizabeth A. and Stephen RiCharde. 2005. NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment: Definitions of Assessment Methods for Communication, Leadership, Information Literacy, Quantitative Reasoning, and Quantitative Skills. National Center for Education Statistics.

Korey, Jane. 2000. "Dartmouth College Mathematics Across the Curriculum Evaluation Summary: Mathematics and Humanities Courses." Unpublished manuscript.

Lipkus, Isaac, Greg Samsa, and Barbara K. Rimer. 2001. "General Performance on a Numeracy Scale among Highly Education Samples." Medical Decision Making 21(1): 37-44.

McFarland, Jenny. 2010. "Teaching and Assessing Graphing Using Active Learning." MathAMATYC Educator 1(2): 32-39.

Osborn, Chandra Y., Kenneth A. Wallston, Adam Shpigel, Kerri Cavanaugh, Sunil Kripalani, and Russell L. Rothman. 2013. "Development and Validation of the General Health Numeracy Test (GHNT)." Patient Education and Counseling 91(3): 350-356.

Parker, Ruth M., David W. Baker, Mark V. Williams, and Joanne R. Nurss. 1995. "The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults: A New Instrument for Measuring Patients' Literacy Skills." Journal of General Internal Medicine10(10): 537-41.

Ranney, Michael Andrew, Luke F. Rinne, Louise Yarnall, Edward Munnich, Luke Miratrix, and Patricia Schank. 2008. "Designing and Assessing Numeracy Training for Journalists: Toward Improving Quantitative Reasoning among Media Consumers."Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference of the Learning Sciences.

Rutz, Carol and Nathan D. Grawe. 2009. "Pairing WAC and Quantitative Reasoning through Portfolio Assessment and Faculty Development." Across the Disciplines 6.

Schield, Milo. 2010. "Assessing Statistical Literacy: Take CARE." In Assessment Methods in Statistical Education: An International Perspective, edited by Penelope Bidgood, Neville Hunt and Flavia Jolliffe. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Pp. 133-152.

Schwartz, Lisa M., Steve Woloshin, William C. Black, and H. Gilbert Welch.1997. "The Role of Numeracy in Understanding the Benefit of Screening Mammography." Annals of Internal Medicine 127(11): 966-972.

Schwartz, Lisa M., Steve Woloshin, and H. Gilbert Welch. 2005. "Can Patients Interpret Health Information? An Assessment of the Medical Data Interpretation Test." Medical Decision Making 25(3): 290-300.

Shavelson, Richard J. 2008. "Reflections on Quantitative Reasoning: An Assessment Perspective." In Calculation vs. Context: Quantitative Literacy and Its Implication for Teacher Education, edited by Bernard L. Madison and Lynn Arthur Steen. Mathematical Association of America. Pp. 27-44.

Sundre, Donna L. and Thelk, Amy D. 2010. "Advancing Assessment of Quantitative and Scientific Reasoning." Numeracy 3(2): Article 2.

Taylor, Corrine. 2009. "Assessing Quantitative Reasoning." Numeracy 2(2): Article 1.

Vacher, H.L., and Todd Chavez. 2009. "Quantitative Literacy on the Web of Science 2 - Mining the Health Numeracy Literature for Assessment Items." Numeracy 2(1): Article 5.

Wallace, Dorothy; Kim Rheinlander, Steven Woloshin, and Lisa, Schwartz. 2009. "Quantitative Literacy Assessments: An Introduction to Testing Tests." Numeracy 2(2): Article 3.

Ward, Rose Marie, Monica C. Schneider, and James D. Kiper. 2011. "Development of an Assessment of Quantitative Literacy for Miami University." Numeracy 4(2):Article 4.

Wilder, Esther Isabelle. 2010. "A Qualitative Assessment of Efforts to Integrate Data Analysis throughout the Sociology Curriculum: Feedback from Students, Faculty and Alumni." Teaching Sociology 38(2): 226-246.

Woloshin, Steve, Lisa M. Schwartz, and H.Gilbert Welch. 2005. "Patients and Medical Statistics. Interest, Confidence, and Ability." Journal of General Internal Medicine 20(11): 996-1000.

**Internet Resources
**

A guide for undertaking assessment in the geosciences.

Assessment Resource Tools for Improving Statistical Thinking (ARTIST)

James Madison University Assessment ResourcesA collection of resources to help teachers assess statistical literacy, statistical reasoning, and statistical thinking.

Assessment tips, techniques, and examples from JMU's Center for Assessment and Research Studies.

NICHE Collection of QR Assessment Instruments

A collection of QR assessment tools, mostly of a very general nature.

**Resources on National Programs to Promote Numeracy**

**Reports**

Balatti, Jo, Stephen Black, and Ian Falk. 2006. Reframing Adult Literacy and Numeracy. An Adult Literacy National Project Report (Australia).

Coben, Diana, with Dhamma Colwell, Sheila Macrae, Jo Boaler, Margaret Brown, and Valerie Rhodes. 2003. Adult Numeracy: Review of Research and Related Literature. National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy (Great Britain) NRDC.

Earl, Lorna, Michael Fullan, Ken Leithwood, Nancy Watson, with Doris Jantzi, Ben Levin, and Nancy Torrance. 2000. Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto (OISE/UT) Evaluation of the Implementation of the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies. OISE/UT.

Higgins, Joanna. 2003. An Evaluation of the Advanced Numeracy Project. Ministry of Education, Wellington, New Zealand.**Articles**

Brown, Margaret, Mike Askew, Alison Millett, and Valerie Rhodes. 2003. "The Key Role of Educational Research in the Development and Evaluation of the National Numeracy Strategy." British Educational Research Journal 29(5): 655-667.

Brown, Margaret, Mike Askew, Dave Baker, Hazel Denvir, and Alison Millett. 1998. "Is the National Numeracy Strategy Research-Based?" British Journal of Educational Studies 46(4): 362-385.

Brown, Margaret, Tamara Bibby, and David C. Johnson. 2000. "Turning our Attention from the What to the How: The National Numeracy Strategy." British Educational Research Journal 26(4): 457-471.

Leithwood, Kenneth, Doris Jantzi, Lorna Earl, Nancy Watson, Benjamin Levin and Michael Fullan. 2004. "Strategic Leadership for Large-Scale Reform of England's National Literacy and Numeracy Strategy." School Leadership & Management 24(1): 57-79.